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Thomas  E.  Jeffrey 
Microfilm  Editor 

Gregory  Field 
Theresa  M.  Collins 
David  W.  Hutchings 
Lisa  Gitelman 
Leonard  DeGraaf 
Dennis  D.  Madden 

Mary  Ann  Hellrigel 
Paul  B.  Israel 
Robert  A.  Rosenberg 
Karen  A.  Detlg 
Gregory  Jankunis 
Douglas  G.  Tarr 

Reese  V.  Jenkins 
Director  and  Editor 


Rutgers,  The  State  University  of  New  Jersey 
National  Park  Service,  Edison  National  Historic  Site 
New  Jersey  Historical  Commission 
Smithsonian  Institution 

University  Publications  of  America 
Bethesda,  Maryland 

vlth  permission  of  McGraw-Edison  Company. 


Reese  V.  Jenkins 
Director  and  Editor 

Thomas  E.  Jeffrey 
Associate  Director  and  Microfilm  Editor 

Robert  A.  Rosenberg 
Managing  Editor,  Book  Edition 

Helen  Endlck 

Assistant  Director  for  Administration 

Associate  Editor 
Paul  B.  Israel 

Research  Associates 

Theresa  M.  Collins 
David  W.  Hutchings 
Karen  A.  Detig 

Gregory  Jankunls 

Assistant  Editors 
Keith  A.  Nler 
Gregory  Field 
Lisa  Gltelman 
Martha  J.  King 


Grace  Kurkowski 

Student  Assistant 
Bethany  Jankunls 


Rutgers,  The  State  University  of  National  Park  Service 

New  Jersey  John  Maounis 

Francis  L.  Lawrence  Maryanne  Gerbauckas 

Joseph  J.  Seneca  Nancy  Waters 

Richard  F.  Foley  George  Tselos 

Rudolph  M.  Bell  Smithsonian  Institution 

New  Jersey  Historical  Commission  Bernard  Finn 

Howard  L.  Green  Arthur  P,  Molelia 


James  Brittain,  Georgia  Institute  of  Technology 
Alfred  D.  Chandler,  Jr.,  Harvard  University 
Neil  Harris,  University  of  Chicago 
Thomas  Parke  Hughes,  University  of  Pennsylvania 
Arthur  Link,  Princeton  University 
Nathan  Reingold,  Smithsonian  Institution 
Robert  E.  Schofield,  Iowa  State  University 


William  C.  Hittinger  (Chairman),  RCA  Corporation 
Edward  J.  Bloustein,  Rutgers,  The  State  University  of  New  Jersey  • 
Cees  Bruynes,  North  American  Philips  Corporation 
Paul  J.  Christiansen,  Charles  Edison  Fund 
Philip  F.  Dietz,  Westinghouse  Electric  Corporation 
Roland  W.  Schmitt,  General  Electric  Corporation 
Harold  W.  Sonn,  Public  Service  Electric  and  Gas  Company 
Morris  Tanenbaum,  AT&T 




The  Alfred  P.  Sloan  Foundation 
Charles  Edison  Fund 
The  Hyde  and  Watson  Foundation 
Geraldine  R.  Dodge  Foundation 


National  Science  Foundation 
National  Endowment  for  the  Humanities 
National  Historical  Publications  and 
Records  Commission 


Alabama  Power  Company 
Amerada  Hess  Corporation 

Atlantic  Electric 

Association  of  Edison  Illuminating 
Companies,  Inc. 

Battelle  Memorial  Institute 
The  Boston  Edison  Foundation 
Cabot  Corporation  Foundation,  Inc. 
Carolina  Power  &  Light  Company 
Consolidated  Edison  Company  of 
New  York,  Inc. 

Consumers  Power  Company 
Coming  Glass  Works  Foundation 
Duke  Power  Company 
Entergy  Corporation  (Middle  South 
Electric  Systems) 

Exxon  Corporation 
Florida  Power  &  Light  Company 
General  Electric  Foundation 
Gould  Inc.  Foundation 
Gulf  States  Utilities  Company 
Idaho  Power  Company 
International  Brotherhood  of  Electrical 

Iowa  Power  and  Light  Company 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stanley  H.  Katz 
Matsushita  Electric  Industrial  Co.,  Ltd. 
McGraw-Edison  Company 
Minnesota  Power 
New  Jersey  Bell 
New  York  State  Electric  &  Gas 

North  American  Philips  Corporation 
Philadelphia  Electric  Company 
Philips  International  B.V. 

Public  Service  Electric  and  Gas 
RCA  Corporation 
Robert  Bosch  GmbH 
Rochester  Gas  and  Electric 

San  Diego  Gas  &  Electric 
Savannah  Electric  and  Power  Company 
Schering-Plough  Foundation 
Texas  Utilities  Company 
Thomas  &  Betts  Corporation 
Thomson  Grand  Public 
Transamerica  Delaval  Inc. 
Westinghouse  Educational  Foundation 
Wisconsin  Public  Service 


A  Note  on  the  Sources 

The  pages  which  have  been 
filmed  are  the  best  copies 
available.  Every  technical 
effort  possible  has  been 
made  to  ensure  legibility. 


Reel  duplication  of  the  whole  or  of 
any  part  of  this  film  is  prohibited. 
In  lieu  of  transcripts,  however, 
enlarged  photocopies  of  selected’ 
items  contained  on  these  reels 
may  be  made  in  order  to  facilitate 

Distribution  of  Labor  #7 

This  book  covers  the  period  July  1891-July  1893.  It  provides  weekly 
compilations  of  the  laboratory  payroll,  listing  the  hours  and  pay  for  all 
employees  and  detailing  how  their  labor  was  charged  to  individual 
experimental  projects  and  other  laboratory  accounts.  The  book  consists  of  109 
numbered  sheets.  The  front  cover  is  stamped  "Distribution  of  Labor  No.  7. 
Laboratory  T.A.  Edison  Orange,  N.J."  The  spine  is  labeled  "Distribution  of 
Labor  7/9/1891  to  7/27/1893." 

Blank  sheet  not  filmed:  109. 

This  book  has  been  filmed  at  a  reduction  ratio  of  17:1.  Oversize  pages 
have  been  filmed  in  sections. 




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flilMAMA  5-  }(. 

®uXm/A«/  kmn/is^y 



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(fall  fotfi,v-ftA/ 

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faaWiu/  1 
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:£iuiuu,f'  aJ  •Hukstfuelinj. 

\  uUU\M/  9K <LI\Ia/  ;  t 


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6/// :  6 1//  \  || 

‘/so  i  i  3  r0 1, 


xrvrAi  '  ?  IlUUuL-  '  VjIUhi^i  ItMiwult  '  Jtftiultut  ~<MTv 

TOTAL  ;  MlMu,  «hj  ;  ■lUrMCHuivS.  itiviijb  fiV  s  ,£,J it  httvJ  'fUnu. 

AMOUNT  .^uu(  ^  'U**  fO  XlZ 

fiud(  leluxJlu . 

Ilwdl  , 

0M-  $/ul7). 
XJIw-^&a/  Jriiij, 
•M>(v Ctxw 


Itm.j’uC  a  | 
AM-if*/  ft  V  X' 
iLdhvJ  i  It 

ttljnd  hifv/)L~ 

jtAMittuHiCh  '  i\m 
yfa\ ^<OUit\  cujn/  „ 

'  ■'///>  ^ 

,  i  hty  h v  i 

■4\.jll‘UAMt4)JltA/  j  lY.m  : 


\  JitAf-c. 

*■  ***■  h  'wjt 

wfjp,  r^^iL 

j  fiwtnudj  flsu.} 
iCliUil  (Um/ 

(fyMZcJtylj  ]t£~  'J. 

-MiAa/  'L, Wuj  3 
lit-lMl/'  JiLuftV 
^(A/uUamtJ  JxJsLh  ■ 

I Has  3L^a 

AzhlusuUu)  K.ltj. 

Q  Yt- 

^'xJUoAjW  Is . 

&M&MAMS  lito-KM. 

Mvvl i  s{f.  u 

I  eA/ 

i  -'^/Wu.  UJtj/'tA/ 
11  tCl<$Jiw.<4A*S 


~ j  1A  1AA  t1  ia/ 

IqASv^Cic  (a/ 

!  WtZdMH.*/ 

2?  fS  13  *0 
IX. Li  12,1*3 





.  “ff  { JL I  ;s&«  i ' rr^t22L__ 


BimaimJ  j 
Huy^rf-  j: 


'.  ™h  ;  ;  ;  .  I 

23  og  j  j.  i 

30,00  .  ■  ;' . , 

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:  1 



;  ’’ 

- - : - ! - : - “h^ - - - - - - - ; 

1  ;  %  3o  r/3 1  2,3  g 

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:  ^  H  :  ■  "  '  37\ 

/■&g.  y.?s\ 

y  iy 

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|  | 


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i  1 

:  i  ■  :  ■  ;  :  :  ;  i  '  i  ;  !  :  !  :  ! 

a  vo 


|  ! 


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.;  >.10.  /  Vo  >•/>  r.  V//</  .  i.  .3A 

:•  VI)  -  :Mi 


1 1 

J7-  »</  23  oj  6//3V  ,*W./  ^.0J>  7.3  07  3-.  IV  ?.*-o^ 

/(•  q  t. 

0(, 5.  \ 

■  \ 


1  i  ! 


;  : 

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i  :  i  ■;  |  M  II  1  i  1  i  Mil 


:  §  : 
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!  j  “1  j  “  j - r — j - — 

■  1  ! 

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[WEEK  ENDING  OCTOBER  27,  1892] 


■'nJk  aUua 

0M  jW 

tfatut  MUtuiiw 




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MtUr*  f.7V 

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}  (huu^  dfrlvCfi. 

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|:|  ^  tfa/t.'fM.usv  7l[un^- 

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t„  Mv  to.  '  ^^'"X  _  <6/W/V  r  J,  f  (M,.  ;  #eW  ‘ft'trrfy . 

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TOTAL  |W  :  Udeute  | 

A“u";  <«/“':  “»  l,’Mion  \™~T; 

i  dkmw^ 


f  Hiodcf  ’(ftme/ilhuj  i  MUUuq  J‘/i  i  fMw.1*.,  J  £i/ojo«/ 

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0  i  *'£//?.  A  *#**■  5  m.ln/»<  l  THttJ'  l> 





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1  }  j  1  .  I 



Iqmwwj  Jfiel  \ 

DlMKtiA  lb 
natMA  Mod 


ILuml,  _ I 


(b  njr 




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’/hi  ]  i  I  v-M  s  I  f  ’  j 

U  Oil  .;  //  (JO 

i£o<t  ■  a  a  :  ’ 



H  oi  j 


■  1 

McIUia/  Xmw  1  \ 

fotmlxM  haJltw. 
wwA  JKmuj  0 
hltlfaMiiw  ImI- 

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<W-  \ 

/CxJuntA/"  j 

tfcdk^  JlA^n/1 1 






is  i 


•7-d  oo  ..  7-o.uo  : 

?  to  £33  ;!  : 

/fl  ■  !*  '/-3  ::  f  .  j 

^‘'0  i  /J'oo  :  /  [  :j 

— 2/  g(' _ M: _ : _ 2_2fi _ iA _  no '  \ 

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MvJ JliAA  ■ 
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yic^jm.Uu!utft a/  j 
fyafy/luLAuS-'  I 



in  j 

Vllje  S 

.  r - — — i-r- - - - - 

to  00  .  \ 

11.00  /y  00 

l%.oo  :  /  7'  ou  i  ’’ 

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Bilim  Autlru 









TOTAL  ku*tAti  &hi*4*  fiwbt/Ml)  (jhvMMUaf. 

AMOUNT  4iJtlut  ;  fc/uA*.  fyufouft. 

U*  3  fa. 
fytwdl.  AIuaIu. 

DU  SmI. 

.  1 (u^lAudui  </jui/s 


auMMi - 

*/.i>  ;.  ?J«7  ^  77  ^77 

23.01?  ;,  23.  «<■ 

Jo,  cm  i 

rrmjtP  g/|^i  i 

A  :i "ZSSt&T  \  i ' 

7b*go>^  ftjj ' 


\  fi*t, 


M-v'  :  |:  ;  |:  l 

Mltut . 

JmUu  | Uuji-y' 

JJ'1’ fltuiAA  fyuuf. 

X-uJw/  (fJultif 

.  Us 

V  ;  6<l 

,  ;  6« 






/tjft  7-</6.  ’■  toil,  (>•>■».  L 


n  oo  / {.to  \ 

li.1-3  /&  1.1  ;  l  ;.  ! 

<6  »r  t  „f  : 


l(uiMtXiij/  OS- 

DxeAprvO  %  ^-t- 

lUlms  til 

■'fcujiu  tv*/.  :  ^A<^a 

;  <f&/  [  <f(»  l  )t>*\  <J  (>V'\ 

IV oo  \oo  ;  i  4  ■  l  to.  CO  | 

Jo. so  Jo. oo  ;  ;  ■  .  f  } 

7-fss  ;  7-j'oo  |  j.  i 

/7  J'o  /T.^s 


Oxdufw.  w^c, 


jOjUTimJcI  $.  k. 

Jk&ifM.  Jidut. _ 

thnLw.tMS'  |  7 

./&*«  .  !  7 

•iiftMMUiiit/  Jt-U 

JAu./fu^oi/  !  ^ 



It/' <1  C  l»t'0O  ;  J  i  ; 

7^  f  ■  S 

/  3s 

iftiHin-Lpl.Jjlw  S. 

JlatiMti  tmtuuu . 

JlAlw  XtM.ii  s? 

§HaJia/  ^UuJhuy. 

|wm.  jinnMA _ : 

&£U<rjA.t{l]*u/  \ 

Qa#.  fitHtftaJiv*/  \  , 

-bjllAMUUiCfM/  j 
_ Ail  It  tar*/  ‘  Itl’lv 

J^oo  .:  Jif so  | 

7-F.te  ,  >/>/  ; 

f.oo  :.  /.  33  ■  ; 

6.67  : 




1)  l  j 

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_ 1 

SutMllA/  a7  Jtif  %e)W :  yf'AS . 

6&W0  »4H/^  6s  3X 

‘ibkouuiu^tA/  'A'u.h 

mXeftJiuiA/  ;  tj 

5-/.‘,»  u.tjt  ;  4  Cl  T-io  ..  i  ] 

/c  oo  ,  J  34-  it.ltb  '  _  [ 

;  f  63 

^  4^' 

(SXvuM  .  <J- 

'Im*  <£  If. 

3ptn oM-Jj. 

taJiMM/  ;  Jb'^ 

.  '  6« 

Stbljtiu/tAr  iq'i 

•  :f'- 




V.33  ..  /.Ji-;  1/ j  ■  ■ 

7«s  7-3tA  6.66. 

//  s'6  </.K6  : 

l-.s-y  .  ...  . 



r- n 




H  U*  i 
ll.Mtl  fcl&xUc 
Oti  £v<\ 

.iUu,  JfMtfL 
fuifi'U  (J/lUilf 

■fyhsi  (Jtod 
JjAMAki^  a 
UlWI  t  4. 



KIM n  /<.  x. 

(LtjnJ  "fluA/jt- 
-i fydUq/tA- /  k<Mi 

Ojuhfato  ttUAJjL-, 
JlMlUAAi  Ja£J{ 

%eum  wu.i/ 
Aau\Juwj/^3.Lt  u. 

Oklftuvbuo  $v/f. 


KhaaL,  <f  Vi. 

iLtsj  CSft/{uftA/ 

- - "tib/iuM  achy 


;  Il  f  jbfSdf. 

:  OtMiAM  Me Jpn/ 

/,  i/Wt-ULt  jllM  MlCA/lr  . 

4</k,u(  :^**h*#?  ‘Uruf* 

— ' _ _ MidwL _ _ _ j 

23.1-j  III  Zli.zC  : 

'V'  31* 

Hm  ;  L-ij  //.  it/ ; 

t «/  .  /S'  (j  oi 
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1  .//.  i  Mine  :  'J  i.  i  H.1  t  0  7"  , 

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6/ujJ^k  -fniiUMu  ,i  ,  t/jeMckSluHy  7Yvtfitlt,Hf  §t!f  '  fclumi 

<t^±  ^  ■3$'  \Z17J Vs 

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I  £#Jtld<li  dnnutujf 

[  JitiLcdub^  r 

1  ftarfttb 

7  '7 30  77 

3.j(^  3  34 

,  Jo.  00'  l  \ 

Zt  c%.  \  \  l  l  .  \ 

11-31'  4  P/, 


7i.  23 :  ;  ; 

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::  l0-r  l 


f  '  1 

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±£xi .  ' 

1  :  j 

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2.oo  .:  ■ 


23/0  ..  3  S’,  ;• 

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- f - - - - y^f-L. 

ri-V  tiS'h.  /0M0  .  US.M  L,,„  iL.t-L  „  „i. 

*•  7 








TOTAL  A  .  B  '  AIu-Mji  :  0/u*4tuj  f  j:  /tort-do*  J  ^Muddhuj 

AMOUNT  '  tfijUd  .  1 

My/mf  .U.IvJ.ny  7to,„  i  Tz/r  & 



[J-J/ujanA,  j  Z»M'  ^ 

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'fjjJal  JsiutJv 



A aJhhtua.  .L,; 



LIJl wluitdy 





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25.  «T  23.  eS 

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»»•.  1.3.  :  >3;  |; 








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2 4.31  3t/il  Zo.jil: 

is  3i : 

ij  >1  ii.  •/?  5-.//; ; 

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l‘t-3o  S'S'  /ft.iss 

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W  A. 

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L  i7> 

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ib-fo :,  ih.S'o  1  ;  j| 

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l>af  ■  \ 

_ 3i  mi _ I _  Lm  '■  Lai 


jlowfltlno-  ((.J-  »  S3i 

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22  y 


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finuitfjL  5.  Q,v1\UftA^  j  /. 

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Total  :  TOTAL  •%v-uf  ;  -AiwIam  !  ■  fcju'r.\  ■  (ffmMmi  J  4/U.m\ 

““  :  “c””~  R“!  —  ^ . 4? 







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;  | 

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f\(lUi{tUi  a  f. _ AdnuunAth  .30/'/ _  //It-  II  I...S  1/7,0  «/, /: 


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'fitkitlJlUA  \s[u./jii<tte.  Ill Stt-flucff  jtu{  /S': 0  0  . 

1  | 

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3d.  (1  £77:  II.S‘I  u  sd.  S.yi 

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■  S  .  •  !  ■■  i 

Distribution  of  Labor  #8 

This  book  covers  the  period  August  1893-January  1896.  It  provides 
weekly  compilations  of  the  laboratory  payroll,  listing  the  hours  and  pay  for  all 
employees  and  detailing  how  their  labor  was  charged  to  individual 
experimental  projects  and  other  laboratoiy  accounts.  The  book  consists  of  57 
numbered  sheets.  The  front  cover  is  stamped  "Distribution  of  Labor  No.  8 
Laboratoiy  T.  A.  Edison  Orange,  N.J." 

Blank  sheet  not  filmed:  57. 

This  book  has  been  filmed  at  a  reduction  ratio  of  17:1.  Oversize  pages 
have  been  filmed  in  sections.  ‘ 


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The  Patent  Series  of  (1)  Caveat  Files;  and  (2)  Patent  Application  Files. 

The  Caveat  Files  (preliminary  patent  applications)  cover  the  period  1887- 
1896.  Included  are  draft  caveats  in  Edison’s  hand  and  typed  copies  retained  by 
Richard  N.  Dyer,  Edison’s  patent  attorney.  The  documents  relate  to  a  variety 
of  subjects,  including  the  phonograph,  the  kinetograph,  ore  milling,  and 
fluorescent  lamps.  The  individual  caveats  frequently  deal  with  several  different 
technologies,  and  many  of  the  files  contain  a  letter  from  the  Commissioner  of 
Patents  noting  that  the  caveat  "must  be  limited  to  a  single  invention." 

The  Patent  Application  Files  consist  of  formal  applications,  along  with 
correspondence  between  Edison’s  attorneys  and  the  U.S.  Patent  office.  Many 
of  the  applications  pertain  to  improvements  in  Edison’s  phonograph.  There  is 
also  material  relating  to  electric  lighting  and  power,  ore  milling,  motion 
pictures,  and  various  other  technologies.  A  related  set  of  application  files  for 
Edison’s  U.S.  patents  can  be  found  in  the  National  Archives  (Record  Group 
241,  Records  of  the  Patent  Office).  The  National  Archives  set  is  nearly 
complete  and  available  on  microfilm.  For  that  reason,  only  the  files  relating  to 
Edison’s  abandoned  or  forfeited  applications  are  included  in  their  entirety 
here.  Drafts  in  Edison’s  hand  for  both  successful  and  rejected  applications 
have  also  been  filmed. 

Much  of  the  material  in  the  Caveat  Files  and  the  Patent  Application 
Files  is  closely  related  to  the  notes  and  drawings  in  the  Notebook  Series. 

The  archives  of  the  Edison  National  Historic  Site  also  holds  numerous 
case  files  relating  to  Edison’s  foreign  patent  applications.  In  addition,  there  are 
patents  by  other  inventors;  many  of  these  patents  were  subsequently  assigned 
to  Edison’s  companies.  A  finding  aid  for  the  Patents  record  group  is  available 


Caveats  are  preliminary  patent  applications.  Until  1910  the  U.S.  Patent 
Office  permitted  an  inventor  to  file  an  official  notice  regarding  work  in 
progress.  Caveats  were  valid  for  one  year  and  could  be  renewed  from  year  to 
year  upon  payment  of  a  fee.  If  another  inventor  subsequently  filed  an 
application  for  a  similar  invention,  the  first  inventor  was  so  notified. 

There  are  fourteen  caveat  files  for  the  period  1887-1896,  with  Edison 
case  numbers  110-123.  These  have  been  filmed  in  case-number  order.  In 
addition,  there  are  eight  caveat  drafts  without  case  numbers  covering  the 
period  1887-1890.  These  have  been  filmed  in  chronological  order  following 
the  numbered  files.  For  most  of  the  numbered  caveats,  there  are  draft  notes 
and  drawings  in  Edison’s  hand  and  a  typed  copy,  which  was  retained  by 
attorney  Richard  N.  Dyer.  Since  there  are  often  substantive  differences 
between  the  two  versions,  both  have  been  filmed.  However,  the  blueprint 
drawings  retained  by  Dyer  have  not  been  filmed  except  for  those  accompanying 
the  three  caveats  lacking  a  draft  by  Edison. 

The  caveats  in  the  Patent  Series  bear  a  close  relationship  to  the  notes 
and  drawings  in  the  Notebook  Series,  many  of  which  carry  inscriptions 
indicating  that  they  were  used  in  the  preparation  of  caveats  or  patent 

|  The  caveats  appear  on  the  microfilm  in  the  following  order: 


Date  of  Edison’s 































































[  2-177.] 


and  the  same  has  been  placed  in  the  confidential  archives  of  the 
Pattest  Qffieo,  as  provided  by  Section  Jf90S,  of  the  Revised  Statutes. 

Shis  GATE  AT  will  cease  to  be  operative  after  one  yearn  from~ 
. QC.4PS*?. . ,  unless  the  same  shall  be  renewed. 

$n  tcstimonn  whereof  AS  Aave  ccuacc/  i/e  seal  </  (Ac 

Patent  Office  <0  Ac  Aeicunto  ajftccecA /Am  . 

c/ay  /. . .  .  .  _ ,  ane/  <ff  tAe 

Afin  c/e/i c?i(/c7zc6  tAa  ^Anctec/ tAe  o. 

GlVEN  ancAsl  ?ny  AaticA,  at  'ffiad/utipfon, 

1  one  year  after  the  filing  of  a  Caveat,  another  person  applies  for  a  patent  with  which  buc! 
:1i  application  will  be  suspended,  and  notice  thereof  will  bo  sent  to  the  person  filing  the  Cuvc 
on  within  three  months  from  the  day  on  which  notice  is  sent  to  him,  will  be  entitled  to  an 
,  for  the  purpose  of  proving  priority  of  invention,  and  obtaining  tin  . 

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P  8  T  I  Tin  H. 

Tho  petition  of  Thorns..  A.  Kdison,  a  citizen  of  the  Uni. tod 
States,  residing  at  Mewollyn- Park,  in.  tho  County  of  Rssox 
and  State- of  Now .Jersey*,  represents:  .. 

That  ho  has  made  certain  Improvements,  in  Photography, 

find  that  he  is  now  engaged  ito/wafetog  -experiments  for  the  pur¬ 
pose  of  perfecting  the  same,  preparatory  to-applying  for 
Letters  Patent  therefor.  He  therefore  pray3  that  tho  sub¬ 
joined  description  of  his  invention  nay  be  filed  as  a  wavoat 
in  tho  confidential,  archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 


To  the  Comaissioner  of  Patents  : 

Be  it  known  that  X,  Thomas  A.  Edison,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  tlie  County 
of  Essex,  in  the  State  of  New  Jersey, having  invented  an  Im¬ 
provement  in  Photography  and  desiring  further  to  mature 
the  same,  file  this  my  caveat  therefor  and  pray  protection 
of  my  rigit  until  X  shall  have  matured  my  invention. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  my  said  invention, 
which  is  aS full,  clear  and  exact  as  I  am  able  at  this  time 
to  give, ref arenas  being  had  to  the  drawing  hereto  attached. 

My  invention  relates  to  an  instrument  which  is  in¬ 
tended  to  do  for  the  eye  what  tho  phonograph  does  for  the 
ear, that  is  to  record  and  reproduce  views  of  things  and  ob¬ 
jects  in  mot  ion, and  the  instrument  is  designed  to  be  in  such 
form  as  to  bo  cheap,  practical  and  convenient.  I  oall  the 
affaratus  a  Kinetosoope .  When  the  instrument  is  used  in  re¬ 
cording  motions  it  may  be  called  a  kinetograph, but  when  used 
for  subsequent  reproduction, whi ah  will  be  its  most  common 
use  to  the  is  properly  called  a  kinetoscope . The 
principal  feature  of  the  invention  consists  in  continuously 
photographing  a  series  of  pictures  at  slight  interval s,not 
moas^than  eight  per  second.  These  piotures  are  photographed 
in  a  continuous  spiral  line  on  a  cylinder  or  plate  in  the 
same  way  that  sound  is  recorded  on  the  phonograph.  The ’cyl¬ 
inder  is  provided  with  an  escapement  which  keeps  it  at  rest 
at  the  instant  tho  ohomioal  notion  of  photographing  takes 
place  on  it  and  between  the  operations  of  photographing  it 
is  advanced  in  rotation  a  single  step  at  a  time,  this  motion 
taking  place  whilo  the  light  is  cut  off  by  a  rapidly  vibrat¬ 
ing  shutter.  The  movement  of  the  cylinder  or  plate  is  thus 
_ ..  _  -/- .  ' 

a  stop  by  step  movement  occurring  at  such  'times  as  no  pho¬ 
tographic  effect  takes  place.  Tlie  cylinders  v*lS  for  instance 
be  about  the  sumo  size  as  those  of  the  phonograph,  the  number 
of  thro  ails  to  the  inch  on  the  feed  screw  being  about  thirty- 
two.  Tills'  will  give  photographic  images  about  one  tiilrty  - 
second  of  an  inch  wide, which  will  give  about  one  hundred  and 
eighty  phonographs  pur  revolution  or  <12000  for  the  whole 
cylinder.  It  is  probable  that  twnty-fi va  ’  images  per  second 
will  be  sufficient  to  give  the  illusion  a6  if  looking  at  the 
actual  scene  with  all  its  life  and  motion,  finch  a  cylinder 
as  described  can  therefore  bo  made  to  record  and  reproduce 
all  the  motions  or  scene  s  occu  rring  during  a  period  of  twenty 
ei glit  minutes. 

The  kinetograph  may  be  /reared  with  a  phonograph  so 
that  a  record  of  motion  is  taken  down  on  one  instrument  and 
a  record  of  sounds  on  the  other, and  both  may  be  reproduced 
simultaneously.  For  reproducing  the  photographic  r-  cord,  I 
substitute  for  tho  photographing  instrument  a  microscope 
and  when  the  instrument,  is  revolved  the  continuous  series 
of  photographs  passes  above  the  eye  with  such  rapidity  as 
to  produce  on  the  eye  the  impression  of  a  continuous  scene 
in  motion  which  occurs  in  the  same  manner  as  those  original¬ 
ly  recorded. 

1  prefer  to  use  a  cylinder  instead  of  a  plato  with  a 

valut e  spiral. _ A  continuous  strip  could  be  used, but  there 

tiro  mechanical  difficulties  in  the  way, while  with  the  use  of 
a  cylinder  with  the  micro-photographs  taken  on  its  surface  in 
a  spiral  line  admits  of  tho  ti so  of  very  simple  mechanism. 

The  cylinders  arc  hollow  shells  each  having  a  taper¬ 
ing  bore  so  that  .they  can  be  slipped  on  to  a  taper  oylinder 

which  forms  part  of  the  instrument, in  the  sane  way  as 
_  ... _  sBst _ _  .  _ _ 

in  the 

phonograph.  The  hollow  shells  may  be  of  any  suitable  sub¬ 
stance  which  will  preserve  its  shape, such  as  plaster  of  per¬ 
is  and  other  su  bs  Unices  v/hioh  can  be  mol duel  into  form.  The 
collodion  or  soft  film  for  photographing  may  be  flowed  over 
the  cylinder  in  the  same  way  that  til  is  is  done  with  ordinary 
flat  photo  platen.  In  this  way  a  positive  is  taken, but  it 
produces  a  negative  series  of  photographs.  I  use  a  transpa¬ 
rent  cylinder, the  surface  of  which  is  flowed  with  the  chem¬ 
ical  material.  This  thin  cylinder  is  then  clipped  over  the 
oylinder  which  is  to  be  used  in  practice  and  which  will  have 
a  sensitized  surface  and  this  is  printed  from  the  negative 
by  light  in  straight  linos  without  reflection  from  side 
surfaces.  A  positive  may  bo  takon  and  by  the  use  of  proper 
lenses  may  be  reproduced  on  another  oylinder  Just  as  one 
photograph  is  taken  from  another. 

The  permanent  cylinder  may  be  covered  with  a  shell 
and  a- thin  flat  film  or  transparent  sensitized  tissue 
wrapped  around  It, and  this  af  ter  being  filled  with  images  may 
be  detached  from  the  shell  and  used  as  a  negative  from  which 
which  to  print  many  positives  on  sheets  which. are  permanently 
pasted  on  shells  for  use.  In  this  case  perfect  alignment 
and  no  eccentricity  of  the  surface  must  be  had  as  otherwise 
the  focus  of  the  observing  objective  would  be 
though  a  pressor  foot  might  bo  usod  to  move  the  objective 
and  thus  keep  it  in  focus  even  if  the  surfaae  of  the  cylinder 
was  not  true. 

The  principal  features  of  the  apparatus  are  illus - 
tratod  in  the  accompanying  drawing. 

A  is  the  driving  pulley  which  inuy  be  run  by  a  bolt 
from  on  oleet,ro-motor  or  othor  souroe  of  power.  B  is  a  break 

is  used  in 

wheel  on  the  shaft.  0  is  a  feed  a  crew  such  as 
the  phonograph,  and  J)  is  a  friction  device  conn  a  c  tin/;  the 
pulley  and  broals  vhcol  shaft  with  the  feed  screw.  E  is  a 
travelling  arm  for  carrying  the  micro -phot agraphia  apparat¬ 
us  for  recording  and  the  microscope  for  reproducing. '  M  illus¬ 
trates  either  the  photographic  apparatus  or  the  microscope. 
This  is  carried  by  a  hinged  am  H.  A  shutter  a  having  two 
openings  is  rapidly  vibrated  between  magnets  IP  and  G,  so  that 
thu  openings  are  alternately  interposed  and  withdrawn  f  ram 
between  the  surfaoo  of  the  cylinder  and  the  recording  or  rc  - 
producing  apparatus.  The  arm  which  carries  the  shutter  is 
pivotod  at  b.  When  the  lover  is  to  the  right  or  to  the  left 
an  aperture  is  opposite  the  objective, but  when  it  is  in  tho 
act  of  moving  the  lino  of  vision  between  the  cylinder  and 
objective  is  cut  off  by  the  apace  between  the  two  holoe  in 
the  shutter.  When  the  shutter  ie  at  either  limit  of  its 
movement  and  at  rest, the  cylinder  is  also  at  rest  and  no 
movement  of  the  cylinder  takes  place  while  an  uporturo  is  op¬ 
posite  the  objective,  tliorofo  re  at  tlio  movement  of  recording 
and  reproducing  tho  photographic  surfaces  aro  in  a  state  of 
rest.  The  intermittent  rotation  of  tho  cylinder  is  accomplish¬ 
ed  by  means  of  an  escapement  I,  tho  fo rK  of  wliioh  is  vibrated 
by  double  magnets  K  L,  The  movements  of  both  the  slmttor 
and  the  os  Cap  orient  arc  controlled  by  the  fcreuk  wheel  B,  Two 
springs  rest  on  tho  break  wheel, one  being  slightly  In  advance 
of  tho  other, so  that  one  rosts  on  metal  when  tho  other  is 
on  insulation, tho  surface  of  tho  break  whoel  being, as  will 
bo  understood  made  up  alternately  of  metal  and  insulation. 

Tho  magnets  K  and  0  are  in  tho  cirouit  of  one  spring, and  the 
magnets  L  and  Fin  that  of  tho  other.  A  spring  ,b  rusts  on 


the  shaft  ao  aa  to  make  connection  from  the  battery  0  to 
tho  metal  ptirt  of  tho  breRk  wheel.  It  will  bo  seen  that  the 
revolution  of  tho  break  wheel  onorgiaos  first  tho  injuncts  K 
and  f«,und  then  the  magnets  L  and  F,and  the  escapement  is  re¬ 
leased  at  the  same  time  that  the  shutter  is  vibrated,  so  that 
tho  cylinder  advances  only  at  tho  time  the  abutter  has  out 
off  the  vision  betweon  tho  objective  and  tho  cylinder.  The 
speed  of  the  driving  jail ley  A  should  be  much  creator  than 
that  of  tho  feed  screw, and  thuroforo  tho  break  wheel  need 
have  but  comparatively  few  breaks  which  gives  groater  rapidi¬ 
ty  of  advancement  of  tho  cylinder  during  the  time  when  the 
ohutter  outs  off  the  light.  The  motor  should  be  provided  with 
a  governor  so  as  to  give  a  constant  speed.  It  will  be  un¬ 
derstood  that  in  practice  the  mechanism  is  likely  to  bo 
considerably  changed  from  that  illustrated  in  tho  drawing, 
tho  illustrations  being  intended  merely  to  simplify  the  ex¬ 
planation  of  the  inven  tion. 

Instead  of  a  break  wheel,  a  tuning  fork  may  be 
used  to  control  tho  magnet, the  fork  being  kept  in  vibration 
by  a  magnet  and  automatic  circuit  breaker.  The  escapement 
lever  and  the  shutter  lever  may  themselves  bo  vibrating  roeds 
or  tuning  forks,  their  magnets  being  in  one  circuit  and  con¬ 
trolled  by  a  conrnon  fork  or  reed  operated  by  an  electro¬ 
magnet  or  it  may  make  and  break  their  own  circuits.  The  break 
wheel  may  be  run  by  a  separate  motor  independent  of  the  mo¬ 
tor  which  drives  the  cylinder.  The  e3oapemont  lever  and  shut¬ 
ter  might  be  operated  mechanically  instead  of  electrically 
by  means  of  a  rotating  wheol  having  un  undulating  surface 
which  reciprocates  a  lover  reBting  on  it.  A  strip  having 
-  a- 

t'VO  apertures  placed  parallel  with  the  cylinder  and  bo  two  on 
the  objective  and  tho  cylinder  may  bo  reciprocated  up  and 
down.  Tho  whole  of  the  shutter  ia  then  detuohed  from  tlio 
travelling  arm  which  renders  tho  imagos  froo  from  blurring 
duo  to  any  movement  or  vibration  of  tho  arm.  A  plate  machine 
with  feeding  mechanism  such  na  a  valuto  spiral  or  a  worm  may’ 
bo  need  and  flat  records  can  be  taken  instead  of  using  cyl¬ 
inders,  bet  1  do  not  consider  this  form  is  so  practicable. 

By  us  In;;  very  large  transparent  shells  tho  pictures  may 
bo  projected  on  a  screen  ns  is  done  in  the  enlargement  of 
micro-photographs.  'Cho  cylinder  will  contain  tho  negative 
record  and  the  sourco  of  light  will  be  placed  inside  of  the 



State  of  ; 

County  of  : 

Thomas  A.  Edison,  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  tho  County  of 
Essox  and  State  of  Now  Jersey,  being  duly  sworn,  deposes  and 
soys,  that  he  verily  believes  himself  to  be  the  original  and 
first  inventor  of  the  Improvement  in  Photography,  _  - 

sot  forth  in  tho  annexed  caveat,  and  that  ho  is  a  citison  of 
tho  United  Statos. 

[  2-177.]1. 



^jo  all  ^cr.'ioiiii  la  whom  these  presents  shall  tame,  ^reeling: 

2£Ms  is  to  (&zxiify  Shat .. 

has  this . *tA . P^rr...  day  of 

this  6jfice  a  U AWE  AT  relating  to  an  Impiaremnt  Sa 

and  the  same  has  been  placed  in  the  confidential  archives  of  the 
Patent  GMee,  as  provided  by  Section  JtSOE  of  the  Revised  Statutes. 
Shis  G AWE AT  will  cease  to  be  operative  after  , one  year  from 
,  unless  the  same  shall  be  renewed. 

$11  te  t  o  hereof f  /S  /ave  carnet/  i/e  seal  <$/  i/e 

Patent  QBee  io  /e  /elcunio  afuee/ i/ee - *?r . 

e/ay  - an/ <j/ i/e 

Sn/e/ien/ence  <S i/e  ^Sniie/ A/iaia  i/e  one  /een/le </ 


Given  ano/ei  my  /an/  ai  'Wae/inyion,  SA.  9a. 


If,  nt  any  time  within  one  year  after  the  filing  pf  a  Caveat,  another  person  npp 
manner  interfere,  such  application  will  bo  suspended,  and  notice  thereof  will  be 
3  a  complete  application  within  three  mouths  from  the  day  on 


a  number  of  separate  and  distinct  improvements  in  Phonographs  . 

Before  applicant  can  get  the  benefits  of  Kule  198  and  of  B  .S  . 

490S,  he  must  canply  with  the  requirements  of  Kule201,and  limit 

his  Ca’ 


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Tho  petition  of  Thomas  A.  Hdison,  a  citison  of  tho 
1  United  States,  rosiding  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of 
Hfissox  and  State  of  flow  Jersey,  represents: 

j  That  ho  has  made  cortain  Improvements  in  Phonographs, 
and  that  ho  is  nov/  engaged  in  making  experiments  for  tho  pur¬ 
pose  of  perfecting  tho  snmo,  preparatory  to  applying  for 
J. otters  Patont  therefor.  Ho  thoroforo  prays  that  tho  stib- 
,  oinod  description  of  his  invention  may  be  filed  as  a  caveat 
in  the  confidential  archives  of  tho  Patent  Office. 

To  tho  Commissioner  of  Patents: 

Ho  it  known  that.  X,  Thomas  A.  Edison,  a  citiaan  of  tho 
llnitod  States,  maiding  at  T.lowollyn  Park,  in  tho  County  of 
Essok  and  Stnto  of  Now  .Tor soy,  having  invent, od  on  Improvement 
In  Phonographs,  and  desiring  further  to  maturo  tho  same,  filo 
this,  my  caveat  therefor,  and  pray  protection  of  my  right  until 
I  shall  have  matured  my  invention. 

Tho  following  is  a  description  of  my  newly  invonted 
phonograph,  which  is  as  full,  clear,  and  exact  as  I  an  able  at 
this  time  to  givo,  reference  being  had  to  the  drawings  horoto 

The  object  of  this  invention  is  improvements  in  phono¬ 
graph!.  c  apparatus . 

Pignro  1  is  a  recorder  with  an  air  chamber  connection 
between  the  recording  point  and  dianhrngn.  Thin  obviates 
defects  duo  to  eccontricity  on  irregularities  of  the  phono¬ 

Piguro  3,  is  where  the  recording  tool  is  not  connected 
to  a  levor  but  directly  on  the  dip,p!ira@n.  "  The  friction 
springs  pressing  on  tho  si do  of  tho  point  nervo  to  stop  ir¬ 
regular  or  false  recording  due  to  momentum. 

Figure  3,  has  tho  point  connected  directly  to  tho  dia- 
phragm,  but  tho  raemontum  is  modified  by  placing  tho  outer 
surface  of  tho  diaphragm  in  a  small  spaced  chamber  whoso  only 
outlet  is  tho  place  where  the  recording  knife  passes  through. 
This  small  space  may  bo  closed  almont  by  putting  on  a  disk 
with  sidos  which  almost  entirely  closos  tho  spaco  like  an  air 
dash  pot. 

Figure  4,  is  a  double  diaphragm  with  a  small  space  in 
between  which  mny  be  filled  with  a  liquid  not  attacking  or 
changing  the  tiaphragms.  This  serves  to  stop  momentum. 

Figure  r>,  lias  n  recording  end  formed  of  a  vary  minute 

Figure  0,  shows  a  recorder  providod  with  a  lever  pivoted 
at  X  with  an  extension  and  vane  on  the  ond  oscillating  in  a 
closod  clumber  after  the  manner  of  a  dash  pot  used  in  me¬ 
chanics.  The  fixod  pot  is  filled  with  a  liquid  and  closod 
by  a  rubber  ond  through  which  the  prolongation  of  the  lovor 
passes  liquid  tight.  This  rubbor  is  loosoly  secured  and 
offers  practically  no  retardation  to  considerable  incursions 
of  the  pivoted  lever. 

figure  7,  has  the  recojvling  point  on  tbo  end  of  a  rood 
sac!  the  vibrations  of  the  diaphragm  are  transmitted  to  the 
reed  through  the  intermediation  of  a  dash  pot  either  closod 
and  filled  with  a  liquid  or  air  cushion  principle. 

Figaro  8,  is  the  same  as  Figure  8,  except  the  friction 
springs  are  within  the  chamber  and  hugging  an  extension  of  tho 
recording  point  through  the  diaphragm. 

Figure  9,  has  a  recording  point  on  the  diaphragm  and 
receives  vibrations  from  tho  diaphragm  through  a  dash  pot 
suspended  from  a  fixed  arm  within  tho  sound  chamber. 

Figure  10,  is  a  point  fixod  to  tho  diaphragm,  but.  a 
lovor  pivoted  at  X  is  connected  to  it,  and  this  lovor  is  pro¬ 
vided  with  a  vane  which  serves  to  dampen  the  falso  recording 
duo  to  momontum. 


Pi, giro  II,  shows  a  point  connected  directly  to  tho  dia¬ 
phragm  and  provided  with  an  air  dampening  disk  just  a  shado 
loose  on  tho  baso  of  tho  point. 

Figure  13,  shows  an  innor  ohnmbor  filled  with  liquid  with 
a  small  opening  closed  with  a  flexible  d lap hr ago.  This 

servos  to  damp on  momentum  vibrations. 

'figure  3.3,  shows  a  device  wheroby  tho  power  to  indent 
stead  of  coming  directly  from  the  tfoico  is  caused  by  pov/or 
derived  from  the  rotation  of  movement  of  tho  phonogram  sur¬ 
face  itself,  the  vibration  .of  the  diaphrajp  merely  increasing 
or  diminishing  the  friction  of  a  somi-rovolving  wheel  on  tho 
surface  of  the  recording  material.  On  pressing  the  wheel 
lightly  on  recording  material  tho  friction  causes  it  to 
rotate  to  right,  and  this  forces  1  over  Y.  point  into  recording 
material  until  its  friction  equals  tho  friction  of  the  wheel 
on  phonogram.  By  a  strong  pressure  on  wheel  a  corresponding 
more  powerful  rotation  or  the  wheel  is  given  and  the  indenting 
point  is  driven  further  into  the  material. 

Figure  14,  shows  recorder  which  i3  capable  of  two  func¬ 
tions.  Tho  lover  with  point  will  record  properly  notwith¬ 
standing  eccentricities  or  irregularities  of  the  recording 
surface.  The  lever  is  pivotod  on  a  piece  secured  to  the 
center  of  tho  diaphragm  itself.  A  spring  servos  ho  give  tho 
recording  end  of  tho  lover  a  downward  movement.  Tho  other 
end  of  tho  lover  is  provided  with  a  light  vane  or  disk  which 
oscillates  in  a  chamber  of  tho  pieco  on  tho  diaphragm,  offer¬ 
ing  practically  perfect  retardation  to  any  movement  duo  to. 
sound  vibrations  owing  to  their  groat  rapidity  of  alterations 


in  movement,  but-,  on  tho  other  bund,  groat  flexibility  or 
absence  of  retardation  to  the  comparatively  long  and  alow 
movements  dun  to  eccentricities  or  irregularities  of  tho 
recording  surface. 

Figaro  15,  shows  tho  nano  principle  as  in  Figaro  <■'>,  but 
instead  of  air  or  liquid  a  viscous  substance  like  Canada 
balsam,  burnt  no ft  rnbbnr,  lamp  black  and  tic,  storax,  hard- 
onod  linseed  oil,  bird  lino,  and  mpy  others  which  '/ill  re¬ 
spond  to  slow  movoMonte  but  are  practically  rigid  to  rapid 

Fi  ;.iro  !(;,  shown  a  lover  which  ridos  on  tho  sur-'aco 
of  the  nhonogrrjn  with  an  nownrd  oxter:  si  on  which  servos  as  a 
fulcrum  for  tho  recording  point  and  lover  vibrated  by  tho 
diaphragm.  This  causes  tho  recording  point  to  bo  independent 
of  the  ecccntricitios  or  irregularities  of  the  phonogram  sur¬ 
face.  Figures  ‘1 4,  dft  and  1.01  show  devices  on  similar  prin- 

Figure  17,  shows  usual  recording  point  and  lever  with 
extension  working  in  a  dash  pot  with  or  without  a  liquid. 

Figure  18,  shows  needle  with  recording  point  used  in¬ 
stead  of  R  link  with  point  on  lover  itself. 

Figure  10,  shows  regular  recording  point  and  lever  with 
a  friction  device  to  modify  momentum  effects. 

Figure  SO,  shows  a  reproducer  which  by  change  of  anglo 
oi'  point  may  be  used  us  a  recorder.  This  lover  has  a  vano 
on  end  which  responds  to  slov/  long  waves  duo  to  irregularities 
of  cylinder  but  not  to  rapid  oscillations  of  tho  diaphragm. 

Tho  viuio  has  raised  edges  to  make  its  rotardution  more  power- 


ful  unci  it  may  be  enclosed  in  n  chamber  to  further  increase 
the  action.  Vhe  point  which  cornea  in  contact  with  the  phono¬ 
gram  is  preferably  made  of  sapphire  or  ruby .  Tl.n  fine  steel 
points  are  rather  too  rapidly  worn  by  impurities  in  the  re¬ 
cording*  materia!  in  spite  of  all  precautions,  and  1  m  now 
engaged  .in  experimenting  °n  sapphire  and  other  unmleabls  hard 
materials,  methods  of  securing  them  to  the  minute  levers  and 
methods  of  accurately  finding  than,  as  well  as  mechanism  to 
ma.'co  them  in  largo  quantities  cheaply.  All  those  materials 
having  a  hardness  of  7  Danas  Miner ology  I  fun  trying  that  have 
the  right  properties. 

Figure  Ml  siiov/Q  the  same  tiling  as  Figure  20,  but  the 
vane  is  round  ancl  oscillates  in  a  chamber. 

Figure  2M,  shows  the  same  action,  but  instead  of  a  vano 
it  small  woight  is  used.  This  while  responding  to  slow 
oscillations  will  not  respond  to  rapid  ones.  It  appears 
unclor  conditions  I  havo  tried  it  not  to  bo  so  good  us  a  vano 
or  dash  pot. 

Figure  M3,  shows  an  extra  lover  with  weights  at  ouch  end 
of  extra  lever  to  allow  of  the  two  actions  already  mentioned, 
i.e.,  retarding  for  one  form  of  oscillation  but  not  for  the 

Figure  34,  shows  a  guard  which,  runs  on  the  surface  of  the 
phonogram  and  determines  the  depth  of  the  recording  point  in 
tho  wax  even  when  the  surface  of  phonogram  is  not  true. 

Figure  2D,  shows  a  lovor  and  point  having  no  connection 
with  the  diaphragm  but  receiving  vibrations  from  it  by  a  disk 
in  exceedingly  closo  proximity  to  tho  same.  A  slight  pros- 


sure  of  tho  point  on  tho  recording  material.  is  attained  by  a 
spring.  fits  momentum  <tofoets  aro  somewhat  eliminated  by  Mb 
tlovico,  and  it  is  independent.  of  irregularities  in  tho  surface 
of  the  moving  phonogram  surface. 

Figure  HQ,  shows  1>ho  same  thing  tw  'i’igure  88,  except  tho 
dielc  on  tho  lover  in  chamber-like,  ho  an  to  increase  tho 
strength  of  tho  waves  given  to  it  by  the  movements  of  tbn 

Figure  87 ,  shows  h  recordor  with  a  sapphire  point  secured 
to  tho  lever  firmly. 

Figure  88,  shows  a  pivoted  extra  lover  and  weight  to 
prevent  it  responding  to  rapid  oscillations  but  to  respond 
readily  to  slow  oscillations. 

|  Figure  89,  shows  a  rotating  vaito  to  produce  tho  double 
offsets,  i.e»,  rotardatlon  to  rapid  oscillations  of  sound 
wives  but  not  slow  waves  of  irregular! tion  of  phonogram's 

Figure  HO,  shews  sivyo  thing,  but  a  dash  pot  and  power¬ 
ful  leverage. 

Figure  Hi,  shows  friction  at  X  but  soring  slightly  in 
excess  of  name.  Thin  seems  to  respond  to  slow  oscillations 
but  friction  soomsi  to  be  more  powerful  to  rapid  vibrations. 

Figures  80,  88,  89,  80  and  81  am  reproducers,  but,  of 
course,  can  be  used  an  recorders  when  provided  with  propor 
points  or  changes.  Tho  principle  is  tho  same  in  both  that  I 
m  illustrating. 

Figure  88,  is  a  reproducer  with  a  little  retarding  cham¬ 
ber  on  tho  diaphragm  extension  pioco  itsolf. 

Figure  83,  shows  a  vano  on  the  reproducing  lover  which 
acts  b-V  ;l'te  retarding  qualities  Hire  a  fulcrum  to  the  rapid 
vibrations  of  sound  but  not  to  alow  oscillations. 

Figure  84,  shoYfs  double  receiver  or  rmroduoor  points 
running  in  the  sane  tract  or  one  or  more  tracts  behind,  tho 
object  being  to  -produce  peculiar  musical.  of  facte. 

Figure  3ii,  has  two  points  side  by  side  and  each  inde¬ 
pendently  moveable,  so  that  one  or  too  other  is  aura  to  follow 
the  contour  of  tho  record. 

Fig-uro  80,  shewn  two  points  on  one  lover  of  tho  reoro- 
■ducor  which  may  be  a  recorder  as  well, 

Pi^ro  87 »  r]mfri  "■  l,m  ringing  am  v/ith  the  recorder 
or  reproducer  or  both  on  the  end,  tho  phene. m^-orisl  being 
smooth  but  is  grooved  with  a  cert  .in  nnmVr  o’  threads  i-o  the 
Inch  cut  in  the  recording  material  itself  previous! v.  Tnis 
thread  serves  to  carry  the  lever  and  recording  and  reproducing 
mechanism  along,  the  record  being  mde  either  in  the  bottom 
of  tho  grooves  or  tho  space  between  then,  the  thread  being 
made  square  on  top  if  tho  latter  in  to  be:  done.  This  makes 
tho  mechanism  of  the  ph<m<>;;rflph  extremely  simple.  The 
|  dififihr,OTi,j  mechanism  ta  arranged,  nf  course,  so  it  will  not 
.interfere  with  the  swinging  of  tho  lover  on  its  arc  of  circlo. 
'{lie  d.iaphrapris  pass  longitudinally  along  *-ho  cylinder  straight. 
Tho  long  lover  may  be  dispensed  with  end  other  forms  of 
mechanism  used. 

1‘iguro  .-Mi,  shows  a  reproducer,  a  lover  secured  to  the 
cUaohrayn  by  a  sy stem  of  strotchod  strings. 

Figure  «9,  «hws  n  lover  for  reproducing  W;  may  be.  mod 
for  recording  when  pointed  differently;  has  double  ful crime 
and  extra  lover  is  provided  with  a  retarding  device,  a  mao 
box,  '.lash  not  or  equivalent. 

Figure  40  shows  tho  retarding  devices. 

Ii’i;.,ures  41,  40,  44,  41)  and  46  also  show  the  principle 
of  retarding  the  vapid  vibrations  but  allowing  the  slow 
vibrations  of  xrrogularitins  of  rooording  surface  to  take 

Figure  4Sf  shovm  reproducing  lever  with  a  s(*rliuj  on  it, 
tho  surfaeo  of  which  root  a  on  the  recording  surfaeo,  an  i  thus 
Unite  to  a  curtain  extent  tho  proeeuro  which  it  is  possible 
to  force  the  reproducing  point  against  tho  record  by  an 
approach  of  the  diaoltra^s  Awards  the  record. 

Figure  47,  shows  u  suction  dash  pot  which  in  another 
form  of  41,  43,  44.  ho. 

Figure  47  ,4;sh  \vs  a  double  link  connection  of  the  n  in  ton 
to  the  lever,  allowing  of  oxtromoly  great  occentricity  in  tho 
rotation  of  the  phonogram  cylinder  without  crowing 'the  lover. 

Figure  54,  (JO,  53  and  5f),  show  samo  object  as  40,  41, 

43,  44,  ftc. 

Figure  43,  shows  an  end  of  a  fixed  lever,  a  recording  or 
reproducing  lever  point  pivoted  to  s.-uno.  I,  coring  from 
opposite  edge  of  diaphragm  holding  device  serves  to  cross 
point  on  phonogram.  A  friction  spring  and  pad  connected  to 
diuohragn  servo  to  carry  the  vibrations  to  the  noint.  'ibis 
device  nlioira  of  considerable  eccentricity  in  the  phono: cram 


Figures  bii  is  came  thing  with  a  nrossor  foot  lever  mov¬ 

Figure  ;/6t  is  also  the  sans  but  with  string  connection 
to  tho  inplu’i'.rjV!. 

Figure  40,  is  a  similar  do  vies  v/ith  string  concoction  and 
pivoted  lever  pressor  foot. 

Figure  wO,  shows  rupr  educing  lover  tho  aid  stocoing  near 
the  exton si on  from  distpbra$a  and  continuing  onward  from  thoro 
as  a  fine  luur  spring. 

Figure  SI,  shows  a  lover  pivoted  on  franc  of  •reproducer 
and  secured  to  the  projection  of  oorlr  on  the  diaphragm  mid  an 
extra  am: ill  reproducing  lever  oivoted  on  tho  large  lover, 
having  only  u  rubber  viscous  or  dash  pot  commotion  with  the 

‘■’iguro  <>?,,  shows  a  d-mblft  rooordnr  for  musical  effects. 

figure  •  >3 ,  has  already  boon  described. 

figure  .‘5R ,  shows  a  reproducing  lover  with  its  mint 
faced  with  a  spring  with  some  exceedingly  thin  clastic  non¬ 
conductor  of  sound  between  it  arid  tho  lover  itself. 

Figure  !)7  is  tho  nano. 

figure  fil,  shows  tho  short  end  or  small  reproducing  lover 
pivoted  on  the  fixed  lever  whoso  end  is  secured  to  the  cork 

Figure  (J?,,  .shows  pressor  foot  running  on  phonogram 

Figure  08,  shows  anno  with  a  rubber  connection  to  po- 
producing  lover  proper. 


Figure  04,  shows  two  springs  connoctod  to  diaphragm, 
having  leather  friction  ends  and  a  spring  to  shovo  lever  away 
from  thorn. 

Figure  05,  shows  simple  spring  connection  between  re¬ 
producing  lover  and  diaphragm 

Figure  (JO,  shows  cork  surface  in  close  proximity  the  air 
kbbhhhkhh  concussion  transmitting  waves. 

Figure  07,  shows  rubber  diaphragm  with  a  glass  or  stiff 
sub-diaphragn  nearly  as  large  as  the  rubber  diaphragn  and 
fixed  to  central  parti 

Figure  08,  shows  pressor  foot  connection. 

Figure  09,  shows  pressor  dioot  connection  and  rubber  con¬ 
nection  to  reproducing  or  recording  point. 

Figure  70,  shows  dash  pot  or  vaiie  connection  with  dia¬ 

Figure  71,  shows  dash  pat  ntx  xhhh  khhhhgMrh  a  guard 
piece  with  smooth  end  which  only  touches  phonogram  surface  in 
case  of  accident  in  adjusting  receiving  point  too  far  forward. 

Figure  78,  shows  double  weight  to  retard  for  sound  and 
not  for  irregular  cylinder  vibrations. 

Figure  73,  shows  flat  spring  connection  between  lever 
arc!  diaphragm. 

Figure  74,  shows  circular  disk  with  raised  edges  moving 
in  a  recoss,  the  disk  talcing  the  place  of  a  diaphragm 

Figure  75,  shows  vane  retarder. 

Figure  70,  shows  retarding  device  entirely  secured  to 

Figure  77,  shows  friction  lover  secured  to  a  glnss 


diaphragm  backed  by  a  aocond  piece  of  glass  of  loss  diameter. 

Figjira  M8,  shows  con  tor  of  diaphragm  thickened  by  a 
matorial  like  shollac. 

Figure  79,  shows  recording  point  with  ond  like  a  cutting 
tool  and  thick  edgewise  so  as  not  to  vibrato.  This  point 
cuts  and  doos  not  scrape. 

Figure  80,  Shows  a  fixed  rigid  grooving  tool  one  line  in 
advance  of  the  recording  tool.  This  tool  (fixed  one)  has  a 
keen  odgo  and  makos  a  very  smooth  groove  and  is  in  addition 
to  the  regular  turning  off  knife. 

Figure  81,  shows  pressor  foot  and  dash  pot  connection. 

Figure  88,.  shows  sane  oxcopt  knucklo  j oint  connection. 

Figure  88,  shows  recorder  with  disk  in  close  proximity 
to  diaphragm. 

Figure  84,  shows  device  for  recorder  similar  to  repro¬ 
ducer  in  Figure  74. 

Figure  8b,  shows  rood  with  link  connection  to  diaphragm. 

Figure  88,  shows  recorder  which  will  also  act  as  a  re¬ 
ceiver  or  reproducer  in  which  the  record  is  made  by  a  wavy 
lino  endwise  0‘-  the  cylinder.  The  vibrations  are  more  truly 
rocordoxlby  this  plan  than  indenting  in  the  regular  way. 

Figure  87,  a  reproducer  with  vane. 

Figure  88,  a  double  rocord  point  recording  in  two  rows,  advance  of  the  other. 

Figure  88-^shows  the  downward  motion  of  one  point  which 
causes  othor  point  to  have  an  upward  motion.  This  device 
also  gives  n  very  true  rocord;  the  two  points  in  travelling 
noko  a  threads  or  grooves  separate. 


Figure  82  3/tL,  shows  lover  whoso  fulcrum  is  a  torsion 

Figure  89,  is  another  view  of  the  same. 

Figure  89$,  shows  recorder  with  retailing  vane  on  lover 
to  prevent  momentum  effects. 

Figure  90,  shows  vane  to  take  care  of  eccentricities  oi' 

Figure  91,  shows  extra  levor  connoc'ocl  to  center  of 
diaphragm  and  provided  with  a  friction  to  stop  momontum  ef¬ 

Figure  93,  shows  recorder  with  vane  or  dash  pot  con- 
no  cti  on  with  diaphr&gn. 

Figure  93,  shows  same  with  addition  of  a.  centering 

Figure  94,  shows  same  with  addition  of  a  spring  con¬ 
necting  vanes  together  to  give  a  pressure  to  levor  point  on 
recording  surface. 

Figure  95,  shows  recorder  with  a  largo  vane  xaixad  with 
raised  edges,  the  whole  circular  and  making  in  a  chamber  the 
vane  replacing  a  diaphragm. 

Figure  9(j,  shows  a  recorder  with  vano. 

Figure  87,  shows  a  very  short  lovor  with  a  rigid  pioco 
extending  out  from  edge  of  diaphragm  holdor  towards  center 
to  which  the  fulcrum  of  the  recording  levor  is  placed.  Ry 
this  arm  I  am  enabled  to  use  a  vory  short  lever,  hence  in¬ 
crease  the  abruptness  of  one  end  of  the  indentation  and  con¬ 
sequent  loudness. 

Figuro  98,  shows  cutting  tool  recording  point. 


Figure  af>,  shows  covered  vane  for  recording  layer. 

Figure  100,  shows  air  chamber  connection  with  diaphragm. 

Figure  101,  chows  pressor  foot  which  serves  to  keep 
diaphragm  in  particular  position  in  relation  to  recording 
surface  independent  of  the  recording  points. 

Figure  103,  shows  a  friction  device  to  mitigate  momentum 

Figures! 02-s  to  114,  show;  ihonogr nm  or  recording  surface 
previously  prepored  by  grooving  tools  before  the  phonograms 
are  used  in  the  phonograph  oijrlone  by  grooving  tools  in  tho 
phonograph  itself,  tho  sane  being  in  advance  of  tho  recording 
mochaniom.  Tho  shape  of  the  grooving  tools  and  also  of  the 
recording  tools  are  given  for  instance  in  Figure  103;  only  . 
tho  recording  point  is  shown  and  this  in  blunt;  no  material  s 
i3  cut  awry  and  no  mutilation  of  tho  record  on  the  side  tokos 
place,  and  there  is  a  froo  way  for  the  stock  to  got  away. 

Figures  115  and  11(5,  show  rocorder  and  reproducer  com¬ 
posed  of  several  points.  The  recorder  does  not  cut  tho 
recording  material,  tho  material  being  of  such  a  nature  as  it 
may  be  indented  by  shoving  or  displacing  the  material  and  not 
indented  by  cutting. 

Figures  117  imdl83,  show  various  forms  of  recording  tools 
or  points. 

Figure  134,  is  a  shell  of  thin  metal  or  other  material 
with  a  closed  end  except  for  phonograph  shaft  and  this  is  used 
by  dipping  in  a  mol ton  recording  material. 

Figuro  135,  is  an  adjunct  to  increase  power  of  sound 
waves  on  a  recorder  or  reproducer. 

It  connects  with  a  hollow 


cork  cone.  This  provents  rebound  of  sound  van/os. 

Figure  loti,  shown  a  collapsible  cylinder  formed  of 
piocoB  of  thick  paper  and  coatod  inside  and  out  with  paper  in 
a  continuous  form,  this  whole  when  shoved  on  a  taper  cylinder 
accommodates  itBolf  to  tJie  >hapo  and  becomes  a  cylinder. 

TJie  exterior  paper  its  coai.ed  with  recording  material.  After 
recording  it  can  bo  token  off  the  false  shell  of  the  phono¬ 
graph,  collapsed  and  sont  flatwise  by  mail  in  an  envelope. 

Figur-.  187,  shows  a  double  diaphragm,  one  oi’  iron  which 
is  connected  to  tlse  same  ring  ar,  the  regular  diaphragm.  Thin 
loaves  an  air  chamber  or  this  space  can  be  filled  with  liquid. 
Tiie  iron  diaphrayn  serves  to  transmit  vibrations  received 
tol ophonically  or  Iforse  waves  without  any  continuous  stress 
|  put  on  the  phonograph  diaphrayn  proper  by  reason  of  the  per¬ 
manent  pull  of  the  magnet  due  to  its  magnetism  or  magnetism 
due  to  u  current  permanent  or  fugativc  on  the  circuit  of  v.'hich 
the  magnet,  is  a  part.  Should  the  chalk  telephone  receiver 
bo  used  I  should  use  the  double  diaphragm  as  well,  but  in  this 
case  it  could  bo  of  arty  material. 

Figure  188,  is  a  governor  for  phonograph  v/hero  the 
governing,  especially  for  music,  must  bo  very  accurate.  It 
consists  of  a  centrifugal  governor  whicli  in  addition  is  pro-’ • 
vidod  with  spreading  fans. 

Figure  140,  shown  practically  the  sane  thing. 

Figure  180,  shows  a  water  piston  with  small  orifice  just 
regulated  so  the  piston  will  only  drop  at  a  cortain  'weight. 

By  multiplying  belting  a  very  oven  speed  is  given  the  phono¬ 
graph  cylinder. 


Picture  141 ,  shows  oscillating  reservoirs  wi th  turbine 
like  dovics  bo  two  on  thorn  which  '-runs  phonograph;  wator  or 
mercury  is  usocl,  ono  rosorvoir  rising  higher  than  tho  other, 
liquid  flows  through  tho  turbine  to  lower  rosorvoir,  which 
when  full  is  raised  high  and  rovorso  action  takes  place. 

A  reversing  device  keeps  phonograph  always  going  in  same 

Figure  14ft,  shows  or  rather  attempts  to  show,  a  plate 
attachment  to  regular  phonograph,  being  revolved  by  removing 
tho  phonograph  cylinder  and  substituting  a  beveled  friction 
whool;  a  false  straight  edge  is  socurod  to  the  regular 
phonograph,  and  spectacle  arm  is  raisod  up. 

Figure  143,  shows  tho  attachment  to  regular  phonograph 
driven  by  belting. 

Figure  144,  is  a  side  view  of  Figuro  14ft. 

Figure  145,  a  press  for  forcing  plastic  material  on 
surface  of  phonograph  blanks. 

Figure  145,  shows  diagrammatically  regular  phonograph 
with  telegraphic  magnet  and  arm  with  pad  for  reading  Morse 
signals  on  phonograph.  I  propose  and  ran  making  up  a  system 
of  tolography  with  the  new  and  improved  phonograph  to  take  tho 
place  of  tho  disk  Morse  recording  apparatus.  I  devised  and 
patented  soveral  years  ago,  recording,  if  necessary,  with 
groat  rapidity,  and  then  slowing  phonograph  and  reproducing 
by  dovico  shown  in  Figuro  145),  or  rotran emitting  waves  at 
big!',  speed  into  another  circuit. 

Figure  147,  shows  transmission  telephonically  tho  records 
on  the  phonogram,  a  carbon  button,  nr  box  with  moon  shaped 

contacts  in  bottom  and  filled  with  carbon  granules,  being 
used  un<l  directly  not  in  motion • by  the  record.  Of  course  : 
induction  coils  fus.  arc  used  in  addition. 

■Figure  lb(),  shows  the  box  v/ith  ourbori  granulos. 

Figuroldi!  ,  shows  an  arm  always  a  running  on  tho  surface 
of  the  phonognun  and  serving  to  automatically  adjust  the  : 
distance  of  tho  diaphragm  to  tho  faco  of  tho  cylinder.  f 

Figure  Ibl,  shows  a  turbino  driving  the  phonograph  and 
a  water  cylinder.  Whan  tho  piston  gets  to  bottom  a  valve 
in  opened  and  is  then  easily  drawn  up  tho  valve  closed  and  is 
than  ready  to  descend  again.  -  - 

■  Figure  lifts,  shows  a  recorder  or  reproducer  so  accurately 
balanced  that  the  points ■themselves  will  follow  the  contour 
and  do  their  work  although  the  Surface  rruiy  be  eccentric  and 
without  the  use  of  a  pressor  foot. 

Figure  1PH,1 "hows  a  shaft  with  two  disks  with  waper 
edges  over  which  a  taper  shell  may  bo  placed. 

Figure  Uj4,  shows  a  phonograph  cylinder  with  a  fixed 
ond  piece  taper  ends  inwards  and  at  the  other  end  a  similar 
piece  movable  mid  kept  against  an  inserted  thick  bovolled 
edged  cylinder  of  recording  material: by  a  spring.  •  ■■ : 

Ffiguro  1W), 1  an  ear  piece  of  glass '  for  phonograph. 

-  Figure  1 ui j,  a  spooking-  or  listening  tube  for  phonograph 
made  of  thin  flat  spirally  woiind  brass  hand -  then  braided  over 
with  textile  material.  - 

Figure  l.‘>7,  shows  a  grooved  cylinder  like  old  phonograph 
with  a  stretching  material  over  it  like  oloato  lead  hardened 
somewhat  by  a  stoarato  or  palmitato.  Hie  illustration  shows 


tho  shape  of  the  recording  tool,  the  edges  of  which  fit  very 
c.1030  to  the  edge  of  the  (groove.  This  skkotk  giveB  such  a 
;lo3c  sot  to  tho  Miitov-ifil  that  it  will  hold  its  placo  nnd  can¬ 
not  he  moved  from  it-  by  any  record  made  afterwards  or  on  linns 
close  to  it.  I  propose  to  uso  grooved  cylinders  or  shells 
with  over  100  threads  to  the  inch  and  with  square  tops  and 


Figure  1U8,  dhows  a  (grooved  shell  to  fit  over  present 

Figure  lo;>,  shows  a  shell  to  fit  over  phonograph  cylinder 
vfitii  two  rows  of  very  fine  sharp  tooth  each  row  inclining 
slightly  in  opposite  directions.  I  propose  to  use  flat 
shoots  of  paper  cut  accurately  to  si?, a  and  coated  with  a 
flexible  recording  material,  and  I  nuke  the  joint  at  those 
rows  of  tooth  which  penetrating  the  paper  and  recording 
material  holds  the  ends  firmly  in  position. 

Figure  160,  shows  at  one  end  a  straight  edge  to  insure 
alignment.  It  also  shows  rows  of  points  covering  the  entire 
outer  surface  of  the  cylinder. 

I'ij.ure  161,  shows  a  shoot  coated  with  recording  material. 

figure  163,  shows  false  shells  grooved  like  old  phono¬ 
graph  but  fine  and  square  top  and  groove  and  made  cheaply  of 
plaster  pari3,  asphalt  and  other  cheap  mouldable  material, 
and  coated  with  shoots  of  foil  or  oloate  lead  &e.t  and  usod 
with  non-cutting  points. 

Figure b1  <33  and  lt!4,  are  flat  phonogram  holders  forming 
part  of  disk  phonograph;  on  163  points  are  used  to  hold 
phonogram;  on  164  a  smooth  surface  with  unctious  material. 


I  also  propose  to  have  a  chamber  which  has  small.  air  suction 
device  attached  and  by  coating  flat  phonogram  blank  on  both 
sides  1  can  hold  it  in  position  tightly  all  over  by  air  suc¬ 

Figure  lit),  shows  device  for  keeping  very  hard  recording 
material  in  a  condition  to  be  recorded  upon  by  softening  it 
by  boat. 

Figure  100,  shows  a  loose  phonogram  shell  rotated  by  a 
dog  and  a  pressing  spring  pressing  cylindor  always  against 
an  internal  shaft  causes  its  surface  to  rotate  true  at  the 
point  where  the  record  and  reproduction  takes  place. 

Figure  Id?,  shows  a  similar  device. 

Figure  luB,  shows  an  oar  piooo. 

Figure  109,  a  flexible  type-writer 1 s  funnel  for  nhono- 

Figure  170,  a  piece  on  end  of  listening  tube. 

Figure  171,  an  oar  piece. 

Figure  173,  another  form  of  oar  tube  pioce. 

Figure  173,  «  loose  cylinder  or  phonogram  shell  carried 
around  by  a  dog  and  held  to  run  true  whore  the  records  take 

Figures  174  and  17b,  showf,  a  method  of  using  and  register¬ 
ing  flat  phonograms.  174  is  the  flat  phonogram;  17b  the 
some  in  position  in  the  cylinder. 

Figaro  170,  another  form  of  flat  phonogram  with  odgos 

of  paper,  or  rathorAoxtonsions  on  tho  onds.  This  is  lnnped 
around  a  sholl  (Figure  177);  the  edges  of  tho  paper  bent 
down  into  a  slit  and  a  piece  put  in. 

_ '■ _ l _ : . _ . . -  . - . JiL 


Figure  178,  shows  a  balanced  recorder  to  take  care  of 
oocontrioitios  of  tho  phonogram  blank. 

Figure  180,  tho  name. 

Figure  179,  speaking  tube. 

Figure  188,  a  form  of  rec ording  tool. 

Figure  183,  a  lover  always  riding  on  phonogram  servos  to 
adjust  automatically  position  of  the  point  or  diaphragm  to 
the  zticord. 

Figure  184,  tan  or  cylinder  with  several  rings  recordable 
and  of  each  a  distance  apart  that  one  will  slide  in  tho 
other  and  take  uo  small  space  for  filing  or  mailing. 

Figure  13!),  a  sliding  spring  piece  an  a  remembrancer  for 
positions  of  recording  on  tho  phonograph. 

Figure  .188,  a  travelling  recording  or  reproducing 
mechanism  carried  forward  when  recording  or  reproducing  en¬ 
tirely  by  grooves,  or  rather  a  screw  thread  previously-  cut 
in  the  phonogram  between  which  the  record  takes  place,  or  the 
phonogram  blank  nag  be  turned  smooth  and  a  chasing  tool 
precede  tho  travelling  recording  thread  causing 
^follow  the  chaser  thread. 

Figure  187,  same  thing. 

Figure  188,  is  phonograph  with  funnel  provided  with  one 
or  more  sounders  for  recording  all  florae  sounds,  so  that  a 
permanent  record  can  bo  kept. 

Figures  18!)  and  190,  lift  battery  for  phonographs,  tho 
carbon  electrodes  being  regular  arc  carbons  treated  in  u 
hydrocarbon  by  electrical  incandescence  or  passage  of  hydro¬ 
carbon  gas  ovor,  then  when  rod  hot  a  solution  of  chromic  acid, 


7-J  parts,  sulphuric  acid  10  parts,  water  40  parts  and  an  alloy 
of  sine  and  mercury  by  fusion  of  not  loss  than  three  pi iv  oont 
of  mercury. 

Figuro  101,  collapsible  phonogram.  191  shows  it  col¬ 
lapsed;  log  partly  collapsed;  193  open  and  104  shoved  on  tlio 
tap-.-r  cylinder.  J.t  is  a  continuous  cylinder  of  paper  coated 
with  ><  floxiblo  record  in:;  material  and  removed  from  papor  at 
two  places  opposite  oach  other  to  rormit  of  collapse  for 
mail  ini;. 

Figure  19b,  shows  tho  phonograph  record  working  a  re¬ 
producing  point  and  carbon  button.  /u\y  form  of  telephone 
transpiittor  msy  bo  v.'orirnd  thus  id  ion  properly  oonnoctod  with 
the  reproducing  lever. 

Figuro  19ij,  heavy  paper  covered  with  recording  material 
round.  Figuro  197,  shown  this  in  perspective  with  holo  in 
center  and  paper  edges  extending  beyond  recording  Material. 

Figure  199,  shows  platten  of  disk  phonograph  with  central 
pieces  and  four  alignment  corners  to  secure  accurately  in 
position- tho  flat  phonograms. 

Figure  Sbi),  shows  square  phonogram  of  paper  with  cir¬ 
cular  part  of  recording  material  and  four  holes  in  paper  which 
fit  over  pins  in  phonograph  plate  to  insure  accuracy  of 

Figure  199,  shows  material  previously  grooved, record 
bating  placo  in  bottom  of  groove,  thus  preventing  injury  to 
record  in  transportation. 

Figuro  SOI,  shows  a  mailing  envelope  for  flat  phonograms, 
two  compartments;  one  whore  address  is  placed,  idle  other  whore 


stamp  is  placed  contains  nothing  but  puateri  at  X  so  phonogram 
will  keep  in  its  proper  place. 

figure  non.  perspective. 

H’iguro  non,  phonogram  hold  in  position  by  clip  and  jimjsx 
springs.  kiguro  20ij,  another  viow. 

kiguro  204,  thick  disk  or  recording  material  i’or  disk 
phonograph  hold  in  position  by  bevels  and  spring  using  turning 
off  tool  to  clean  off  each  record. 

Figaro  SOfj,  a  ring  on  dink  phonograph  with  flexible 
sheet  phonogram  hold  like  a  diaphragn  and  pros  nor  soring 
underneath  to  hold  to  position  v/hilo  indenting. 

figure  ?SW,  hinged  phonojrraph  shell,  using  flat  phono¬ 
gram  with  oafier  ends  extending  beyond  recording  material, 
and  latch  to  hold  edges  of  shell  firmly  at  split  and  hold 

figure  20;'!,  rocordFrag  and  reproducer  carried  forward  by 
thread  previously  cut  in  recording  material. 

Kiguro  210,  phonograph  cylinder  covered  by  s-d  rally 
winding  paper  say  h  inch  wide  coated  with  recording  material, 
using  say  four  threads  to  inch,  according  to  width  of  paner 
and  returning  to  commencement  each  tino  and  advancing  y? 100 
inch  by  turning  a  screw,  or  as  in  214  automatically  recording 
from  right  to  left  and  advancing  1/fno  inch  oach  ti"te. 

Figure  200,  shown  taper,  a  crons  between  regular  phono¬ 
graph  and  disk  phonograph. 

Fijjuro  211,  shows  a  .thread  entirely  coated  with  recording 
material  by  dipping  or  forcing  through  a  die  either  square, 
round  or  other  shape  when  material  is  plastic  and  recording  on 

|  throat l  on  both  sides  as  in  bottom  figuro  of  211  or  by  two 
diaphragms  on  four  sides. 

•’ifjuro  212,  slows  speaking  to  phonorraoh  from  a  distance 
by  string  telephone, 

|  figure  Sib,  allows  same  through  u  spo-dring  tubo.  This 
will  be  useful  in  office  whom  but  one  phonograph  is  used. 

'i’ha  principal  can  dictate  through  tubo  to  phonograph  in 
distant  room  whoro  ty->ewritor  is. 

Viguro  214,  is  a  hand  phonograph  with  governor  and 
rotation  is  given  by  reciprocating  a  lover  by  the  finger. 

I’iguro  21  u,  a  dial;  machine. 

Vigure  2.1V,  a  disk  phonograph. 

W.guj‘S3rllS  arid  219,  disk  phonotpaioho. 

kiguros  220  and  221,  hand  rociprocating-:  phonographs  liko 


1  at  working  at  a  system  of  comnorclal  toloohony.  The 
system  consists  of  spooking  to  tire  telephone,  recording  it 
at  the  distant  edge  on  the  phonograph  by  using  a  chalk 
telephone  and  then  delivering  the  blank  or  causing  it  to 
apeak  through  tho  local  lino.  The  grant  difficulty  is  to 
got  the  phonograph  and  telephono  recorder  sufficiently  sensi- 
tivo  enough  by  narrow  rocoj'ding  points  and  a  better  chalk.  I 
I  shall  probably  bo  able  to  meet  tho  exigencies  commorGially. 

I  propose  to  toko  down  speeches  by  using  two  ohonographs 
running  simultaneously  each  provided  wi+h  a  funnel  or  a  single 
funnel  used  provided  with  a  valve  or  rathor  cock  and  when  ono 
phonograph  lias  nearly  gone  over  the  cylinder  and  just  boforo 
I  lift  the  recording  mechanism  I  throw  the  other  in  and  while 


, 'inconel  :la 

tlraArocoi‘(Uiii5  stsKhsniKH  I  out  on  now  blank  and  got  the  first 
ready  for  suiothor  take.  A1  o,  T.  nrnooso  An  taking  down 
speeches  to  u;io  instead  of  TOO  threads  to  inch  as  now  and  a 
recording  joint  008  wide  to  uni  a  point  008  wide  and  go  over 
the  cylinder  three  or  four  tines,  advancing  each  tino  0080  or 
just  enough  to  leave  a  slight  space  between  the  records  when 
all.  the  space  has  boon  oeou.iied. 

.(  also  propose  to  make  a  special  copying  device  whore 
three  reproducers  can.  work  simultaneously  on  a  single  phono¬ 
graph  and  this  three  typewriters  copy  at  same  time.  Also  on 
regal  nr  phonograph  I  have  provided  on  thu  nhumI  with  ad  just¬ 
able  screw  to  the  n.ioc+«clo.  This  nan  be  made  a 
fixed  distance  no  that  if  when  dictating  a  nistako  in  made 
I -ho  dictator  can  say  "mi  stake ,J  and  then  lift  n->ootaclo  and 
advice  slightly  and  make  the  correction  between  th"  regular 
;*;tooyckj  providing  a  narrow  recording  uoint  i«  used.  I  am 
also  v.  or  king  up  a  eastern  of  telo-Traohy  \;horoin  the  phonograph 
is  employed.  This  consists  in  using  several  musical  notes 
and  breaking  them  up  on  the  line  into  dots  and  dashes,  onch 
operator  having  a  key  to  control  his  notes,  recording  the  same 
on  a  nagnot  working  the  phonograph  and  then':  having  the  several 
rocoiving  operators  copy  out  from  one  reproducer,  or  have 

noveral  reproducers,  the  reproducing  point  being  a  reed  in 

tone  with  the  particular  note  of  thatAoperator  is  to  copy; 
or  they  may  all  receive  from  ono  roprodueor.  Resonators 
turned  to  each  particular  sound  being  interpolated  in  the 
several  tubes  leading  from  +ho  receiver.  If  automatic 
transmitters  are  used,  regular  '.torso  waves  may  he  recorded  at 


several  hundred  words  wp  minute,  the  ohonogrtioh  being  spooded 
up  and  them  roprotlucod  by  tho  rugoW  re  ircducor  and  copied 
.jura,  .m  if  rn,.nd ur  ':orrso  and  at  raufUr  soood  attained  by 
cl owing  up  the  phono  ?  i  <h  a  such  a  snood  that  the  operator 
can  copy. 

Another  method  is  to  use  a  powerful  transmitting  telephone 
und  in  the  on  tnbur  place  several  sotmdorn  oacli  bavin ,  a  very 
characteristic  sound,  so  it  can  bo  followed  oanily  no+AVith- 
si  an  kn  its  neighbor  in  iit'Hn  ;  telephonic a1  ly  transmitting 
tho  composite  sound,  recording  tiio  sane  on  the  nhopograph  and 
:  then  Cron  one  reproducer  with  several  tubas  the  several 
craves  following  their  indi virtual  sounders  copy  the  sano 

Another  device  I  nri  vor-;in;  on  in  a  phonograph  of  very 
small  f.ii'.e  connected  to  a  telephone,  which  on  ringing  tho 
call  boll  rrf.ll  bo  released,  return  a  sir, na.1  that  it  is  re¬ 
leased  and  record  tho  tolophonic  nossago  and  stop  v.'hon  tho 
call  it?  run,'  off. 

In  recording  music  it  in  necessary  to  use  a  very  long 
and  heavy  funnel ;  to  prevent  thin  from  ro'mu’d'h1  the  endv/ioo 
movement  of  tho  phonographic  mochanifttn  I  suspend  it  by  a  cord 
and  connect  the  end  of  tho  funnel  to  the  recorder  not  by  a 
flexible  speaking  tube  which  loooo  a  large  volume  of  tho 
sound,  but  by  a  rigid  brass  tuba;  thus  a  solid  funnel  cons 
noctfi  directly  to  the  recorder  and  yet  can  follow  its  move¬ 
ment  owing  to  its  being  suspended.  To  prevent  overtones  in 
the  metallic  funnel  I  bind  or  wind  its  entire  surface  firmly 
with  Martin  or  tarred  rope,  felt  or  other  dampening  material. 

I  have  found  that  very  good  cylinders  for  recording  upon 
may  bo  formed  of  choriical  powders  compressed  into  cylinders 
or  plates  by  groat  pressure,  especially  when  moistened  with 
a  liquid. 

All  the  fatty  acid  salts  with  the  motels  he. ,  may  bo 
powdered  and  then  placed  in  a  mould  and  subjoctod  to  groat 
pressure.  The  advantage  of  a  cylinder  of  material  in  this 
form  is  that  when  being  recorded  upon  or  turned  off  by  the 
phonograph  it  does  not  clog  the  points  or  knife  but  drops 
away  as  a  povalor,  thus  keeping  tho  macliino  cloan  and  the 
record  is  bettor.  Most  amorphous  liydrocarbons  or  halogen, 
derivatives  of  the  3arao,  Kaolin  and  other  metallic  amorphous 
precipitates  firmly  divided  may  bo  used  and  cylinders  or 
platos  nay  bo  obtained  by  prossing.  Anothor  advantage  of 
cylinddrs  mado  in  this  way  is  teat  their  expansion  is  much 
loss  than  when  made  by  molting.  Some  of  tho  fatty  acid 
salts  can  bo  obtained  by  rapid  cooling  in  an  amorphous  form 
and  then  powdered  find  pressed,  but  if  it  is  attempted  to  cast 
a  cylinder  by  molting  and  pouring,  the  cylinder  cools  so 
slowly  tlmt  tho  result  is  a  crystalline  substance  which  gives 
a  noisy  record  in  the  phonograph. 

One  process  of  duplicating  rocords  on  the  phonograph  i3 
to  have  one  phonograph  talk  or  sing  to  anothor  which  has  a 
narrower  recording  tool  and  adjusting  so  sensitive  that  it 
could  not  bo  talked  into  directly  without  rattling.  Ono 
phonograph  would  thus  talk  several  thousand  times  provided 
it3  cylinder  was  kopt  hard  by  a  very  low  temperature.  Tito 
connection  between  the  two  phonographs  being  by  a  metallic 


tube  with  giving  joint,  so  no  volume  of  sound  is  lost.  The 
receiving  phonograph  might  be  placed  in  box  at  high  tempera¬ 

In  turning  off  provious  record  on  cylinders  I  have 
used  a  knife  which  just  pares  deep  enough  to  romovo  the  pro¬ 
vious  record,  but  where  there  has  been  very  loud  talking  he. , 

the  chip  must  be  a  largo  one,  and  being  rathor  hoavy  curls  and 
divide  into 

clogs  up.  I  now  hKKxk^this  knife  ia^xto  or  more  stops  in 
advance  of  each  other.  One  in  advance  takes  a  slight  chip, 
the  socond  goes  deeper  into  recording  material  but  takes  no 
groatoe  chip,  while  the  third  goes  still  deeper.  The  total 
result  is  throe  small  light  chips  which  do  not  clog  instoad 
of  ono  largo  one. 

For  a  continuously  repeating  phonograph  I  take  the 
regular  ono,  put  it  at  an  angle  so  that  when  it  gets  to  limit 
it  will  bo  thrown  up,  i.e.,  the  spectacle  arm  by  a  catch, lift 
out  travelling  arm  and  fall  back  by  its  own  weight  agninst 
an  air  cushion  or  buff  or,  the  arm'.vwill  drop  in  and  it  will 
return  again,  thus  ropoating,  say  music  Sc.  as  many  time a  as 
desired.  Again,  with  a  motor  machine  a  nickol  may  by  its 
weight  or  boing  a  metal  close  a  circuit,  or  being  magnetic, 
cause  itself  to  bo  attracted  and  thus  close  the  circuit  of 
the  motor  which  starts  the  phonograph  and  whon  it  ploys  the 
whole  tune  &c,,  drops  back  as  mentioned,  replace  the  switch, 
open  the  motor  circuit  and  be  ready  for  the  nexjf nickel. 

®n  another  page  I  have  spoken  of  pressed  amorphous 
powders  which  could  bo  compressed  into  cylinders  or  plates 
to  bo  recorded  on  in  phonographs.  T:  will  mention  that  talc 


and  castor  oil,  talc  and  linsood  oil,  talc  and  wax,  kaolin  and 
wax,  talc,  kaolin  and  oleato  of  a  raotal  say  load,  kaolin  and 
castor  oil  treated  after  pressing  with  hyponitric  acid. 

Kaolin,  tide  or  the  liko  powder  mixed  with  an  oil  solidifiablo 
by  hhlorido  of  sulphur  or  chlorinated  plumbago.  Napthaline 
molted  and  stirred  to  prevent  crystallisation,  pure  common  clay, 
alumina  from  alum  by  potash,  amorphous  keotinos,  aldehydes, 
alcohols,  cylinders  of  kaolin  or  other  amorphous  mineral 
powders  dipped  in  wax  fatty  acids,  fatty  acid  salts,  paraffino 
group  of  hydrocarbons,  ozokerite,  Japan  wax,  Tailor?  glycorino. 

Phonogram  cylinders  or  plates  with  a  paper  foundation; 
then  coating  of  a  flexible,  extensible  substance  and  thon  a 
film  ovor  this  of  guttu  porcha,  balata  or  kindred  extensible 
gums,  collodion  gelatine  or  glue  and  molasses  te.,  linsood  or 
drying  oil  films,  oithor  natural  or  produced  hy  chldrido  sul¬ 
phur  or  chlorination  in  situ. 

For  belts  to  bo  used  .in  various  phonographs,  I  am  using 
louthor  belts  with  lap  and  whole  bolt  having  single  soam  of 
silk  stretching  on  each  edge;  also  am  trying  to  got  seamless, 
jointless  silk  woven  belts,  I  also  crown  the  pulleys. 

I  am  also  experimenting  with  a  composite  phonogram 

cylinder  composed  of  sdveral  phonograms Aover  the  other.  I 
first  take  a  false  shell,  coat  with  a  single  layer  of  paper, 
dip  in  material  cool,  turn  off,  cover  this  again  with  a  single 
lay or  paper,  ro-dip,  nnd  so  on  until  I  have  built  up  a  cylin¬ 
der  of  many  recording  surfaces.  On  the  phonograph  when  one 
surface  is  used  up  I  insert  a  knife  or  previously  lenve  a 
lap  and  tour  off  one  section  leaving  oxposod  a  now  surfaco 


rondoring  it  unnecessary  to  turn  it  off  when  recorder  and  re¬ 
producer  aro  used  which  aro  independent  of  eccentricity  of  tho 
p honour  am  surface. 

For  trueing  dipped  paper  phonograms  dip  in  recording 
mat or i al ,  then  put  in  a  polished  mould  and  run  in  a  tapnr  to 
force  paper  to  proper  taper  and  true  up  and  smooth  surface 
of  wax. 

Phonogram  blanks  for  giving  a  surface,  i.e.,  material 
outside  of  recording  nurfaco,  but  to  put  recording  material 
upon  exterior,  hot  asphalt  moulded  by  pressuro,  ditto  mixed 
with  powdered  mica,  sawdust,  lime,  sand,  talc,  asbestos. 
Cylinders  of  plaster  par in,  ditto  soaked  in  hot  asphalt  in  a 
solvent,  s ay  turpentine,  to  moke  them  stronger  and  impervious 
to  moisture,  paper  wound  on  a  mandrel,  several  layors  thin 
papor  over  the  other  by  continuous  shoot  of  full  width  of 
cylinder.  Such  paper  to  be  soaked  in  paraffine  or  other 
waterproofing  material  so  cyl indors  will  not  expand  by  getting 
accidentally  wot  during  transportation.  Paraffine,  oleato 
lead,  linseed  or  other  drying  oil  and  treated  with  chloride 
sulphur,  hot  rosin  and  also  of  tho  snmo  material  tho  recording 
surface  is  made  oi’  so  as  to  have  some  expansive  coefficient. 
Resin  and  paraffine,  rosin  and  linseed  oil,  castor  and  olive 
oil  treated  with  hyponitric  acid,  any  fatty  oil  suit  made 
solid  or  aorai-oolid  by  chlorination  with  fumes  of  chlorine  or 
a  carrier  of  cM  urine  like,  pontachl oride  antimony,  paper 
soaked  in  hot  asphalt  solution  in  any  resin  or  gum  rnado  soft 
by  solvent  or  semi-solvent  or  mixture  with  a  softer  body  when 
hot  which  on  cooling  will  be  somewhat  flexible. 


Rogulating  the  speed  of  the  phonograph  motor  by  cutsing 
■■ho  governor  to  strengthen  the  field  when  tho  spood  in  too 
gront,  i.e.,  by  throwing  out  a  resistance.  To  stop  spark 
on  tho  governor  when  motor  is  used  on  an  oloctric  light  cir¬ 
cuit  by  shunting  governor  broalr  by  a  condenser. 

A  phonogram  blank  imelo  of  aspliolt  preferably  Syrian  and 
u  softener  like  Japan  \mx,  onokorito  ?so. ,  v/hich  is  recorded 
on  warn  and  after  recorded  is  treated  by  a  chlorinating  agont 
or  chloride  sulphur  to  render  its  surface  infusible  and  hard. 

Vor  reproducing  records  or  rather  duplicating  tho  same  I 
coat  tho  surface  of  tho  cylinder  with  say  silver  by  oloetro- 
vacuum  process,  then  plate  tho  outside  yk  inch  thick  with 
copper,  put  tho  cylinder  on  a  mandril,  true  the  outside  by 
grinding  to  a  taper,  fit  this  in  a  taper  stool  die,  then 
dissolve  wax  or  other  material  out,  and  then  put  in  a  blank 
cylinder  of  plastic  (when  hot)  material,-  force  in  a  plunger, 
spread  the  same;  against  tho  rocord  and  then  allow  tho  same  to 
cool.  It  will  contract  sufficient  away  from  tho  rocord  to 
allow  of  its  being  takon  out. 


This  specification  signed  and  witnessed  this 
;a ly  of  1888. 

State  of 
County  of 

Thomas  A.  Miaou,  of  Llor/ollyn  Park,  in  tho  County  of 
Raaox  mul  State  of  Mot:  Joraoy,  lining  duly  sworn,-  doposos  and 
any  a,  that  ho  vorily  holiovos  hinaolf  to  bo  tho  original  and 
first  inventor  of  tho  Improvement  in  Phonographs,  3ot  forth 
in  tho  annoxod  cavoat,  and  that  ho  in  a  oitiaon  of  tho  Unitod 




^er.’ioiifi  to  whom  llienc  ^rcscnid  nlinll  tome,  ^reding : 

%Ws  is  to  ©.entity  Shat _ 

has  this . &  d  ' 

Of - . <2^. . ,  188 1,  filed 

this  Office  a  SAVE  AT  relating  to  an 

and  the  same  has  been  placed  in  the  confidential  archives  of  the 
Patent  QMee,  as  provided  by  Section  J/.90Q,  of  the  Revised  Statutes. 

Shis  SAVE  AT  will  cease  to  be  operative  after  one  year  from 
. . ,  unless  the  same  shall  be  renewed. 

$n  testimony  whereof  A?  Aave  caueeS  iAe  seal  </  iAe 
Patent  OSiee  So  Ae  Acieunio  afimec/Su  'Sd'Se.P" 

oAiy  c/.. . . ,  ant/o/iAe 

ASnt/e/iencAsnce  o/ <Ae  %ncte(J  Siaia  <Ae  one  AuncA.eS 


Given  unSet  my  AancS,  a/  WcuAvnyCon,  Sff.  lo. 


^  -  - Commis/rioncr. 

tin  year  after 'the  filing  of  o  Caveat,  another  perso 
application  will  he  suspended,' and  notico  thereof  \t 

Jr  the  purpose  of  proving  priority  of  Invention,  at 

i  applies  for  a  patent  with  which  sucli  Caveat 

lo  sent  to  him,  will  he  entitled  to  nn  Interior 
1  obtaining  tho  patent  if  ho  bo  adjudged  the 

90  Shr^/fi  7^^ 


S.  PATJ  'NT  ()!"}■ 


f’  nofs'-m 

~Nov  .  2  .  lag— 8 

T. A  .Edison, 
Care  Dyer  &  Seely 
40  Wall  St. 

N  .Y  .City,  N.Y. 
Please  find  below 

'Application  for  patent  for 


Caveat  for  Phonographs. 

Filed  Oat  .  30,188  8  -N'°- 

nunication  from  the  Meant  tiler  in  charge  of  the  application 

Commissioner,  of  Patents. 

archives  of  this  Office, for  applicant's  must  be 
limited  to  a  single  invention  as  required  by  the  Wules  of  Practici 

d^lto^z  ^JL.m 

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|  P  E  T  ITI  0  71. 



|J  "’ho  i'-tition  of  A.  Edison,  a  citisson  of  tho  United 

I  :i*i«vf>08,  residing  at  I.lowollyn  Parle,  in  tlm  County  of  Essex  and 
|  State  of  Move  , for  soy,  roprosenta: 

j  That  ho  has  made  cortain  Improvements  in  Phonographs  and 
Appliances,  and  that  ho  is  now  engaged  in  making  oxooriroents 
J  for  tho  purpose  of  porfooting  tho  name,  preparatory  to  srapiyig 
j  applying  for  Letters  Patonh  thorofor.  lfo  thorofnro  prays 
j  that  tho  subj oinnd  'Inscription  of  his  invention  may  bo  filed 
j  as  a  caveat  in  tho  confidential  archives  of  tho  Patent  Office. 



jj  To  tho  Commissioner  of  Patents : 


jj  Bo  it  known  tliat  I,  Thomas  A.  Mison,  a  oitissen  of  tho 
| United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  tho  County  of 
I  Essox  and  Stato  of  Nov*  Jersey,  having  invontod  an  Imnrovomont 
|  in  Phonographs  and  Appliances  ancl  desiring  further  to  mature 
i  tho  same,  file  this  my  caveat  thorofor  and  pray  protection 
j  of  my  right  until  J.  shall  huvo  mntured  my  invention, 

|  Tho  following  is  a  description  of  my  said  invention, 
j which  is  ns  full,  cloar  and  exact  ns  X  m  able  at  this  timo 
|  to  give,  r of or tmoo  being;  had  to  tho  drawings  horoto  attachod. 

si  Tho  object  of  this  invention  is  improvements  in  phono- 


ji  graphs  and  applinnoos  thorofor. 

ji  Figure  1,  shows  a  method  of  governing  tho  oloctrio  motor 
j|  by  causing  the  governor  to  throw  in  and  out  of  tho  field  a 
[ resistance  to  slow  tho  motor  by  strengthening  tho  field  and 
|  .increasing  fck  its  speed  by  diminishing  tho  strength  of  tho 
j  same.  Tho  governor  might  bo  dispensed  with  and  an  extra  coil 
i  in' sorios  with  tho  armature  used,  but  wound  to  weaken  tho 
fiold  when  the  load  inor oases* 

j  Figure  ft,  shows  tho  governor  arranged  to  govern  by  fric¬ 

Figure  ft,  shows  a  condenser  around  the  governor  with 
break  current  contacts  to  eliminate  tho  spark. 

Figaro  4,  shows  tho  governor  provided  with  an  index  to 
indicate  tho  speed  of  the  phonograph. 

Figure  15,  shows  a  turning  off  tool  with  pressor  foot* tho 
foot  resting  on  tho  turned  off  part  while  tho  knife  is  turning 

maty  put-  on, 

!’}'0  end  o?  t,ho  knife 

^o+.-feon  'f  protM&t  foot,  which  pro- 
Hing  up  or  down.  Vhn  object  of  t-his 
vtor  adjustments  unneccumry.  Tho  edge 
sing  turning  off  tool  boing  fihim>  r 
;or  starts  it  ah  tho  right  death.  I 
L-  a  knife  ■ilr  full  width  of  thn  ohono- 
t)o  unod  in  tho  form  of  a  oinjjing  maohins 
soirr  foot,  Tho  oyl inflnr  omild  ho  turned 
'  mid  all  tho  previous  talking  turned 

i.  method  of  indenting  without  removing 
shows  tho  anno. 

10  show  knives  .to  product}  tho  groove 
*  ?. 

ind'int-ing  without  removing  Rtoolr, 
id  0-0  chow  other  forms, 
it  double  recording  tool  so  arranged  that 
ikon  ft  riava  more  abrupt  at  one  end  than 
b,  tun!  the  other  end  ma^os  a  tvavo  more 
:!  do  scr  ibed  in  an  application  novf  ponding, 
joint  receiver!}  tho  volumo  of  sound  is 

ft.  recorder  or  receiver  if  tho  motion  is 
tho  latter. 

a  triple  recording  tool. 

rcjcording  with  leverage  and  yet  pro¬ 

mpt  at-  one  end 

thrut  tho  other. 


Figure  31,  shows  a  plate  phonograph,  “Shn  spend  of  tho 
disk  being  increased  as  the  recorder  approaches  the  cantor, 
this  being  done  by  causing  tho  movement  of  thn  screw  am  to 
incroaso  tho  snood  of  tJio  motor  by  acting  on  the  governor. 

Figaro  23,  shows  a  recording  cylinder  spilt  .in  half  and 
hold  on  the  phonograph  cylinder  by  rubbor  bands. 

Figaro  S3,  shown  a  recorder  which  by  reversing  the  motion 
of  tho  recording  cylinder  becomes  a  receive)'. 

Figure  34*  shows  a  receiver  with  vann  for  dampening  on 
the  lever. 

Figure  35,  shows  the  vibration  of  a  wire  to  give  waves 
to  diaphragm  of  the  receiver. 

Figure  8(5,  sliov/s  a  continuous  shoot  phonograph.  Four  or 
more  recorders  and  four  or  more  receiver  a  are  cocurnd  to  a 
revolving  shaft,  tho  hearing  and  speaking  tubes  being  attached 
at  the  centers  no  that  the  tubes  can  stand  still  while  the 
recorders  and  receivers  revolve.  In  revolving  a  portion  of 
tha  travel  of  each  takes  place  over  a  flat  continuous  roll 
phonogram  which  is  fed  at  such  a  speed  as  to  cause  the  records 
to  bo  about  1/1  (X)  of  an  inch  apart.  'ibis  feeding  may  bo 
continuous  or  intermittent  baiting  place  just  as  one  recording 
point  loavos  tho  recording  surface  and  tho  othnr  cranes  on. 
Devices  are  attached  to  raise  tho  recorders  and  lower  tho 
receivers  when  receiving. 

Figure  P.7,  shows  tho  core  of  the  mould  for  casting  phono¬ 
gram  blanks  wound  with  thread  or  string,  or  narrow  shoot  Tnmrrr 
paper  or  wire  or  metallic  bands,  cloth  bands  or  cloth,  mos¬ 
quito  netting  etc.,  when  the  cylinder  is  poured  it  adheres  to 

ifc!  <md  Xu  becomes  a  part  o tin?  cylinder  canning  the  inner 
p.xvr.  I..0  be  quito  true  rendering  the  sitting  by  roaming  un¬ 
necessary  and  by  the  louse  character  of  the  inner  coating 
causes  it  to  bo  easily  put  on  or  off  tbo  phonograph  cylinder 
jejia  yot  not  cause  the  cylinder  to  crack  when  loft  on  and  a 
cold  snap  conos  up.  This  is  especially  true  of  soft  cotton 
string.  ’.figure  38  shows  the  string  inside  of  n  moulded 

.‘igura  Hi-),  shows  a  carbon  telephone,  the  connection  bo- 
frvooji  the.  electrodes  and  the  diaphragm  being  only  through  ;m 
air  dash  not.  Vhua  the  previous  difficulty  of  the  change 
of  initial  pressure  being  changed  by  buckling  of  riiftohrajyi  by 
continuous  raocluuiicul  stress  or  temperature,  is  obviated. 

The  lever  which  gives  the  initial  pressure  is  also  nrovidod. 
with  a  dash  pot-. 

Figure  SO,  shows  a  motor  directly  connected  to  the  phono¬ 

Figure  wl,  shows  a  mechanical  movement  for  advancing  the 
devices  holding  the  recorder  and  receiver. 

Figure  88,  a  disk  with  thread  in  it  runs  into  a  rack  on 
travelling:  sleeve.  This  being  a  variation  on  figure  31. 

Figure  88,  shows  a  recording  tool  or  recorder  without.  a 
diaphragm.  The  sound  waves  impinge  direct  on  a  cup  connected 
to: i the  recording  lover. 

Figure  34,  shows  same  thing  with  multiple  disk. 

Figure  37  shows  two  diaphragms  connected  together  mid  tho 
recording  lever  so  as  to  got  double  nowor. 

IWgiira  shows  a  sinuous  curve  roeetvor  as  in  b'imrn  %>i 
on  a  plate  machine.  > 

II  !•  .\guro  W:,  shows  a  man  glass  cUslf  very  clone  to  the 
jdiarihwujpi  i aid  Hocurnl  to  n  raid  wound  m  tftgri*  so  no  to  bo 
atr  tight.  "his  ante  as  a  dash  pot. 

[  P'ifiuro  SO,  Shown  recorder  which  makes  waves  very  abrupt, 
rv  onft  0nd»  "hn  *?  *]»<•■  I'w  to^im  fron  the  recording 

matorial  taking  olnoa  in  a  small  arc  of  circle,  i.o.  a! o 
of  vary  snail  diameter. 

F'b.  /m-e  40,  shown  a  sinuous  curve  recorder  on  a  round 

!',.ap;n.,e  41,  shows  a  duplicating  device  in  which  waves 
whicji  on  the  motor  cylinder  nr  a  not  morn  nbnmt  at  one  end 
than  the  other,  wo  made  no  on  the  duplicate,  or  if  the  muotor 
cylinder  v.r>r»  are  abrupt  at  one  ojid  their  abruptness  in 
incroasod  on  the  duplicate.  4°.,  is  a-papor  s’li.ol  1  nude  taper  on  the  inside  but 
not  on  the  outside  and  made  ir.  one  piece. 

itigiunj  4(5,  .shows  a  plate  phonograph,  the  feed  being  ob- 
t;iinod  by  a  worn  on  the  .plate  shaft,  and  worm  -wheel  on  the 
traveller  am  shaft. 

Figure  44,  allows  device  for  increasing  speed  of  pinto  as 
roc  order  ajifuanlw  approaches  center  by  eons  puller  ,md  ahiftor. 
Figure  4ti 

.".gnro  4<l,  shows  recording  with  pressor  foot,  the  whole 
routing  on  tho  cyl.un.lor  but  an  adjustable  shaving  knife  also 
trav oils  with  it,  vMoh  sorvos  to  smooth  the  cylinder  in  ad- 
vonco  of  the  recording  point. 

.•o.guros4?  mid  48,  show  graphophono  phonograph  with  false 

shell  over  which  cylinders  or  collapsable 

i|  40,  shorn  a  squirtor  for  squirti%  out-  flexible 

shoots  of  matorial  to  coat  tho  collapsable  paoor  cylinders  of 
collapr,abl  o  nniUlv-:  phonograms . 

1  tfjUi'f}  ob,  shows  a  solid  cy  liivlro*  all  of  recordin'); 
njtrriu? ,  avid  '%fir  bl,  chows  a  solid  oluto  of  rneording 
raptorial  for  use  or.  plate  phonograph,  A  turning  of?  tool  is 

course:  unod  to  shave  tho  records  off.  T.*><  this  fori  n 
m  phonograph  would  last  a  yoar,  i.n.  one  cylinder  would  bo 

1  m  engaged  on  a  |roat  maibor  of  oxnorinaita  to  obtain 
ut,d)lr:  material  for  coll.-insaW o  j<honn,0jfei  blanks.  Asphalt 

coated  with  a  film  of  ciiiolo,  baUtu,  gelatin  softened  with 
nolassos  o.r  a  film  of  flexible  collodion  or  plastic  sulphur 
or  oloato  of  aluminium  or  magnesium. 

P.npor  shells  coated  with  tin  foil  and  them  dipped  in 
various  moluon  recording  material  .servos  to  nr. want  air 
bubblort  duo  to  water  in  paper  and  giver,  beautiful  surface, 

-ty  dipping  paper  direct  in  hot  solution  consul  orablo  air 
bubbles  appear,  by  turning  off  .smooth  and  re-dipping  those 
goner  filly  disappoor,  but  tho  boat  Method  is  to  dip  in  solution 
and  socuj’o  it  to  a  machine  which  gives  it  a  nnv'nnnt  of  ro¬ 
tation  in  two  opposite  directions  end  if  this  is  done  in  a  hot 
place  tho  distribution  of  tho  material  :1b  perfect,  in  fact  l 
have  used  thin  to  cause  asphalt  in  bonaol  solution 
evenly  spread  over  dynamo  armature  plates  and  I  propose  to 

is  dipped  A; 

n  .u.mieoa  »>:u  or  oUiro  oil  and  Abo  l  in snort  oil 
Msod  un  iUMuts  oi*  chloride  sulphur  or  «  cMorAnntinf-?  linu.1 
i  pontacliloridu  antimony  (muses  n  very  thin  film  bo  coat 
Tjif)  oliva  niJ.  exposed  bo  liyponitrio  acid  does  w#»  thi 
floft  nfttnrlal  ouch  as  oletiho  load,  Japan  vwc, 
;h  or  fatty  oil  pitch  oho.,  on  paper  turned  off  and  then 
>cd  in  a  raoiii  in  alcohol,  hi turnon,  bisulphide  carbon  or 
ml,  Japan  Vor.iinli,  oho.,  to  f-jivn  puli  shod  elastic  film 
mt  without  cutting. 

•'I)r  wiling  oylindorct,  cleats  aluminium  mixed,  with  hard 
.■••ofi,  ohlor h-oioatoo  of  alumina  also  mii!<nosium,  ftolaftin 
(1  with  albumen  imd  various  otlior  amorphous  substances. 
■'Andy  divided  powders  like  kaolin  mixed  •  - i. LV  oloate 
and  squirted  and  shoots  cut  mid  put  on  paper  cylinder  A 
hl&vos,  or  triJiydrato  alumina  mixed  with  ol.oo.toe  or 
ro-ol outer,  of  alumina  or  mar;nonAun.  Stearate  of  eulnhu 

tiayrs,  that  ho  vwi*il,y  boliov-ss  hAi-;<iolf  to  bo  tho  orA;;tnn' 
first  Anvimtox-  of  tins  L?r>r  ovivionh  in  Phonographs  and  An 
wicos,  not  forth  An  -:j»o  annoxod  ciuretit,  und  that  ho  in  , 
ci'tiKun  of  hhu  Uni hod  .Staton. 


;■ ,  !,H  lo  mliom  llic.'ic  ^micnf;,  filial!  tome,  ^reeling  t  ■ 

’Qfm  Shat 

. •  __£..  I 

•C>-  ‘JZj  '  July  19,  ly?  '  .  |  •  *“ 

as  this ..  ...y^y?.. . . day  of  .~<2S^L^r..e. . ,  188  J^filedin 

this  Gflice  ^^^^^rda^ngto^M^or^ui  in ...:..  . .t...... 

and  the  same  has  been  placed  in  the  confidential  archives  of' the 
Patent  $fiee'fiasxprd'i)ide'd %'y  'Section  %9'0$ of’  IhP'fievtled  Statutes. 
j  vSWH£ve&t  vM?*<$a§e  W%hl4>Mv^/hnb  year  from 
ifflmk  shall  be  renewed. 

■■;  S"  ,c  I  O  whereof  Aave  caused  die  Seal  0/  die 

*  Patent  Office  /o  £  Aeieunto  adeed da sfi.fZ...  ... 

^  wp^/d. 

f%>de/iendence  c/ do  IdnUed £ftates  do  onedundled 



department  of  the  interior, 



DEC  18B8 
-Hec, -§1, 188.... 

. ~40  Wall— St, .  ( 

,  _  fnp  4^hrtnftpTftphR 

. yr..U,.„X  1 

Mied . De.o,..a,iTia«8, . itsa. 

Commissioner  of  Patents. 

Before  this  caveat  can  be  regularly  filed  so  as  to  secure 
+.0  app]  icant  the  benefits  provided  by  must  be  confined  to  a 
single  invention. 

IulJL  a 

e~4-J  T 

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0  N. 

The  petition  of  Thomas  A.  Edison,  a  citizen  of  the 
United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of 
Essex  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  represents:  . 

That  lie  has  made  certain  improvements  in  Phonographs 
and  that  he  is  now  ensued  in  making  experiments  for  the 
purpose  of  perfecting  the  same,  preparatory  to  applying  for 
Letters  Patent  therefor,  he  therefore  prays  that  the  sub¬ 
joined  dosorip tion  of  his  invention  may  be  filed  as  a  caveat 
in  the  confidential  archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 

To  tbo  Commissioner  of  Patents: 

Bo  it-  Imown  that  I,  Thomas  A.  Edison,  a  citison  of  tho 
Unitod  States,  residing  at  T.lowollyn  Park,  in  tho  County  of 
Essex  and  State  of  How  -lorsoy,  having  invontod  an  Improvement 
In  Phonographs,  and  desiring  further  to  mature  the  same,  filo 
this  my  caveat  therefor  and  pray  protection  of  my  right  until 
I  shall  have  matured  my  invention, 

Tho  object  of  tho  invention  in  this  Caveat  is  to  imnrovo 
tho  phonography  especially  in  those  dovicos  which  rolato  to  the 
automatic'  dotormination  of  tho  exact  position  of  tho  rocording 
and  reproducing  points  on  tho  rocording  oylindor,  whether  thick 
or  thin, und  without  tho  necessity  of  adjusting  the  relation 
oach  time  a  new  or  a  different  si?.o  rocording  phonogram  blank 
is  used. 

Tho  following  is  a  description  of  my  said  invention, 
which  is  as  full,  clear  and  oxact  as  I  am  able  at  this  time 
to  givo,  reference  being  has  to  the  drawings  hereto  attached. 

Figure  1  illustratos  ono  mot-hod  .  A  is  tho  phonogram, 

0  tho  spectacle  arm,  <1  tho  foot  which  runs  on  tho  straight 
odgo.  13  i3  a  lovor  provided  with  a  position  screw  x.  This 
is  adjustod  so  that  when  the  point  on  tho  lovor  B  touches  the 
face  of  tho  phonogram  it  almost  immodiatoly  comos  in  contact 
with  tbo  high  surface  of  a  slide  bar  h  and  this  by  previous 
sotting  is  tho  exact  point  wboro  tho  rocording  or  reproducing 
points  are  in  relation  to  A,  a  furbhor  downward  movement  of  0 
is  prevented.  Mow  huving  established  tho  position,  N  is 
turned  and  this  being  fitted  on  a  smooth  ond  of  tho  clamping 

sci’ow  £  servos  to  clamp  d  in  tho  proper  position,  Nw  to 
prevent  the  end  of  B  from  riding  on  tho  ouriaco  of  tho  ohono- 
gram,  tho  nut  I  is  pulled  outward,  it  boing  hold  on  tho  smooth 
oart  of  £  b.y  a  koy  and  seat  in  nut,  tho  flange  *  causes  h  to 
bo  drawn  outward,  tho  sorow  x  falls  in  the  depression,  and  tho 
lover  ft  is  looso  and  is  thus  prevented  from  destroying  or 
rather  mutilating  a  obond;t?nro* 

,  (''iguro  P.  shows  a  lovor  for  determining  the  position  and 
afi'Or  determination  and  d  is  clamped  by  ffc  tho  sorow  x  is 
turned  hock  thus  relieving  tho  lovor. 

I'iguro  d  shows  two  sliding  bars  which  area  tho  oquivalont 
of  d  in  figure  1 .  These  bars  have  a  thread  cut  on  thoir 
surface  ono-half  tho  number  of  threads  as  would  bo  used  on  a 
single  ono.  Tho  determining  lover  sorvos  to  throw  in  a  rock 
lover  s  having  threads  on  tho  oxtromos  of  ouch  end  of  same 
number  as  on  tho  slides.  The  threads  of  ott'd  onrl  are  not 
parallel  with  each  other  or  if  parallel,  tho  threads  on  tho 
slido  bars  aro  one-half  thread  out  in  position,  so  whon  tho 
lover  n  tries  to  throw  rode  piece  s_  into  threads  ono  will  go 
in  wlrilo  the  other  will  not  .  In  oithor  caso  the  further 
movement  downward  of  tho  spectacle  arm  will  bo  urrostod  and 
automatically  socurod  in  tho  proper  position.  Tho  threads 
aro  doop  enough  to  permit  often  locking  of  such  an  excess  of 
movement  ij  B  as  to  roliovo  it  from  riding  on  tho  phonogram 
blank  with  any  orossuro. 

figure  4  shows  instead  of  a  screw  to  assist  tho  movoment 
and  automatically  clamp  a  Kteraing  clamp  ring  similar  to  that 
usod  in  a  Brush  arc  lamp.  Tho  lovor  x  connects  to  B  by  a 


oo  the  moment  the  slido  bar  d  is  clampod  t- 1 >o  lover  B 

is  relieved  and  dono  not  touch  the  cylinder  except  at  nomo 
minute  high  point  which  quickly  wears  away. 

figure  0  shows  the  clamp  nut  but  with  threads  cut  on  d 
and  on  clamps. 

?%wr(3  •)  shows  a  single  instead  of  double  slido  bars  ns 
in  f  igure 

figure  7  shows  glide  bar  which  has  a  rack  with  teeth  on 
it, which,  ongn  ,oo  with  a  pinion,  which  rotates  a  ratchet  wheel, 
the  lock  taking  place  at  do finite,  ooints. 

figuro  8  is  eamo  as  figure  3,  except  that  instead  of 
rock  bar  clutch  it  has  a  '/  shaped  clutch  which  clutches  on 
either  one  or  the  other  of  the  slido  bars  according  -o  which 
thread  is  in  position. 

figuro  10  shows  a  com  ns  the  equivalent,  of  a  slide  bar  d.‘ 
figure  11  shows  a  different  lever  for  determining, 
figures  1?.,  18,  14  and  lb  show  a  ratchet  slide  with  very 
coarse  teeth  but  with  four  clutches,  the  ends  of  the  clutch 
click  being  graduated:  in  longth  so  that  if  the  rack  is  2b 
threads  to  the  inch  the  downward  movement  of  the  sooctaclo 
arm  can  still  bo  clutched  by  1/100  of  an  inch. 

figure  10  shows  a  determining  screw  which  after  clamping 
is  unscrewed  slightly  to  take  it  from  the  cylinder.  figure 
10:^  shows  how  position  for  determination  can  bo  ad -justed  by 
c  and  x. 

figure  17  shows  an  electrical  method  of  determining  the 
locking  point,  any  form  of  clamp  may  bo  used. 


Figuro  shows  a  fixed  determining  point  x.  •  d  U  tho 
general  slide  bar,  but  it  is  double,  H  boing  within  U,at  P 
thoro  is  a  screw  connection  botv/eon  them.  M  is  connected  to 
foot  li  while  VI  is  not,  except  through  screw  ~P,  V/hon  tho 
point  x  is  on  the  phonogram  the  downward  movement  of  tho 
spectacle  is  arrostod.  On  turning  K  tho  rod  v  rotates  o  t 
clamps  M,  but  aftor  clamping  tho  friction  is  not  sufficient 
to  prevent  N  from  being  rotated  and  this  forcos  H  and  li  do wn- 
ward  thus  raising  the  sooctaclo  and  point  of  x  just  off  tho 

Figure  in  shows  a  determining  lover  with  a  pivoted  point 
which  rocks  ;if  tho  rotation  of  tho  cylindor  is  stoppod  tho 
point  a*  that  sjctxudfiiK  is  will  stand  out  straight  and  rest  on 
li  the  spectacle  is  locked  by  clamp,  and  on  rotation  of 
cylinder  the  'mint  is  canted  and  as  the  spring  is  a  delicate 
hair-like  one,  no  appreciable  rubbing  or  mutilation  of  the 
surf uco  of  tho  cylindor  takes  place. 

Figure  30  shows  a  determining  lover  B.  The  clamping  hut 
ti  has  another  shaft  within  tho  screw  so  that  aftor  tho  spect¬ 
acle  is  arrostod  tho  rotation  of  the  nut  <3  first  causes  the 
clamping  by  1  and  friction  7  adjustable  by  8;and  aftor  clamp- 
ing  a  further  rotation  of  0  is  permissible  and  this  causos  a 
pin  b  to  rotate  tho  determining  screw  4  (see  figuro  31)  to 
relieve  the  lover  H,  Figuro  31  is  a  top  viow. 

Figure -S3,  show's  a  hand  sliding  bar  for  determining.  It 
is  shoved  in,  the  apoctaclo^loworad  until  it  will  go  no 
further  on  the  incline  -and  then  clamped  by  x.  The  slide  bar 
is  rotated  and  drawn  back  from  the  cylinder . 

Figure  88  chows  a  dot.or»nininsc  lover  and  locV.  Tho 
clamp  nut-  after  clumping  d  can  still  huvo  a  forward  rotation 
on  tho  clamp  scrow  as  it  is  secured  there  by  friction,  a  pin 
rotates  x  and  roliovos  the  lover,  ,'.The  lever  g  with  spring  II 
is  used  for  tho  purpose  of  causing  a  friction  to  bo  placed 
on  d  aftor  its  pressor  foot  comos  on  tho  straight  odgo,  but 
tho  moment  tho  spectacle  is  lifted  tho  friction  is  taken  off 
by  tho  soring  N  shoving  it  baclr  —  this  lovor  touches  d  on 
tho  sidosjdioro  it  produces  a  friction.  Mo  shoving  back  of 
tho  fslidoAby  hand  is  therefore  nocossnry  which  would  bo  tho 
case  wore  tho  friction  a  permanent  ono. 

Figure  84  shows  a  device  for-  clamping  with  a  nut  on  the 
premier  foot  and  not  on  tho  spectacle  arm  whore  awkwardness 
disturbs  the  accuracy  of  tho  determining  point.  Tho  finger 
nut  can  in  addition  to  rotating  tho  clamp  scrow  havo  a  to  and 
fro  motion  which  servos  to  look  or  relievo  the  determining 

Figure  So  shows  a  similar  device  but  with  hand  nut  for 
locking  and  relieving  tho  lever. 

Figure  So  shows  fixed  determining  point.  Top  viow 
figure  87,  x.  When  spectacle  is  arrostod  by  it  the  slide 
rod  d  is  rotated,  in  the  hole  whoro  it  slides  is  a  strip  n 
tho  wholo  length  of  the  hole.  Tho  rod  has  a  place  filed  in 
it  as  shown;  on  rotation  d  is  clamped  cam  like  against  n  at 
the  same  time  tho  pressor  foot  on  tho  straight  odgo  which  is 
connected  to  d_  by  a  screw  is  forced  downward  and  this  raisos 
tho  spoctaolo  upwards  and  roliovos  x,  from  tho  cylinder. 


Piguro  SB  a  vory  perfect-  determining  device  similar  to 
one  already  doscribnd. 

Piguro  SO  shows  a  saphire  turning  off  tool,  tho  oaohiro 
x  being  clampod  in  stool.  ;:ost  materials  which  are  used  for 
rocording  sound  waives  do  not  act  lilro  metals  in  turning.  I 
have  found  that  although  much  power  is  roquirod  thonanglo  of 
tho  edge  of  tho  tool  for  turning  off  tho  phonogram  material 
is  that  shown  in  tho  figuros  £9  and  BO,  and  this  is  contrary 
to  all  oxooriencos  in  mechanics,  but  it  is  only  in  conjunction 
with  tho  rocording  point  that  this  occurs.  Tools  mado  in  tho 
usual  mannor  give  to  tho  eyo  a  much  finor  and  more  polished 
surface  but  when  tho  rocording  and  receiving  points  run  over 
the  surface  a  groat  amount-  of  noiso  is  hoard, whereas  if  tho 
described  tool  is  used, the  surface  will  not  bo  so  smooth  or 
fine  looking  bolng  rather  dull  in  apooaranco,  yot  the  recorder 
or  reproducer  running  ovor  it  gives  scarcely  any  sound* it  may¬ 
be  due  to  the  fact  that  at  this  angle  the  tool  cannot  vibrate 
on  account  of  tho  surface  and  tho  angle  it  presents  while  with 
a  vory  fine  edged  tool  it  can  be  easily  vibrated.  Another 

difference  which  may  explain  it  i3  that  tho  maximum  backing 
of  f;  as  mechanics  say,  occurs  at  this  angle  with  a  3harp  edge 
liko  saphire,  hence  no  burnishing  action  takes  place  as  with 
the  regular  tool.  I  prof or  to  use  saphire  as  I  have  deter¬ 
mined  by  exporiaont  that  perfect-  edges  can  be  obtained  that 
will  give  no  streaks  on  cutting  which  is  impossible  with 
stool  and  substances  which  havo  ductility  also  that  tho so 
points  do  not  wear  away  by  grit  in  tho  ohonograms  and  that 
tho  strength  of  the  matorial  is  such  that  it  will  stand  a 


groat  final  of  hard  usages,  surprisingly  so,  and  I  have 
determined  to  make  tho  recording  and  reproducing  points  of 
saphiro.  Viguro  ill  shows  how  I  ahull  secure  it  to  tho 
recording  lovor  comont  being  used  in  addition.  The  nnglo 
at  which  the  point  is  ground  is  vorjr_  important  so  as  to  give 
it  maximum  strongth  and  yet  not  havo  the  heel  interfere  with 
the  record.  In  the  motor  of  tho  phonograph  I  have  boon 
using  agate  bottom  bearings  socurod  in  a  round  brass  nioco. 
Sovoral  weeks  running  of  tho  motor  shows  a  tiny  indentation 
worn  in  the  agate,  hence  I  v/as  compelled  to  use  a  harder 
material  and  I  adopted  saphiro  ground  in  shape  as  the  agate . 
Tho  cost’  was  prohibitory,  but:-  by  breaking  tho  crystals  in  two 
or  more  parts  as  they  usually  come  in  tho  markot  and  cementing 
tho  rough  piece  in  tho  cup  by  cement  as  used  by  Lapidaries  anc 
shown  by  shaded  lines  in  figure  #3,  I  render  tho  use  of 
3aphiro  cowiorc tally  available  in  this  connection  as  but  a 
single  surface  is  required  to  bo  ground. 

In  phonographic  dolls  it  is  very  desirable  to  make  the 
illusion  of  speaking  perfect  that,  tho  lips  of  the  autornatcon 
should  ‘follow  the  sookon  words  as  in  lifo.  t*|gure  -<i  shows 
the  preparatory  machine  for  forming  tho  phonogram  to  bo  put 
in  tho  doll,  ono  end  with  the  mouth  piece  records  tho  sooech 
and  on  tho  other  tnd  is  a  supplemental  lever  with  recording 
point  having  groat  lovorago,  the  long  end  of  which  is  socurod 
to  the  lower  jaw  of  the  speaker.  A  head  rest  for  tho  sneaks ’ 
serves  to  keep  tho  adjustment  right.  The  movement  of  the 
lips  is  accuratoly  recorded  but  East  greatly  reduced  by  the  ■ 
groat  lovorago,  simultaneously  with  tho  sound  record.  The 


cylinder  is  put  in  the  automatson  as  in  figure  84.  Tho  lip 
lever  conn  Goto  by  a  link  to  tlm  movable  section  of  tho  jaw. 

(figure  8.)  shows  a  good  form  of  doll  phonograoh  not  how-' 
ever  provided  with  the  lip  mechanism.  10  is  the  from®,  4  tho 
drum  over  which  tho  tin  record  •.  ring  is  placed,  lb  tho 
reproducing  point,  1U  tho  hinge  for  diaphragm  holder,  "<  6  a 
sloovo  slipped  over  flanges  on  4  with  guide  threads,  (J  is  the 
fixed  arm  fixed  [v/  friction  against  its  boaringj  8  is  an  exten¬ 
sion  outside  the  doll  to  raise  it  from  screw,  7,  an  extension 
upward,  which  lifts  diaphragm  mechanism  up  be  fora  0’  is  thrown 
out  of  thread,  thus  proventing  rubbing  of  reproducing  point 
on  return  of  4.  4  returns  by  action  of  soring  18  rad  iS, 

18  and  18  are  either  belt  or  friction  dr i von  wheels.  The 
shaft  of  18  is  pivoted  at  11  on  smooth  throadless  center.  8 
is  a  load  fly  wheel  and  1  and  8  are  tho  usual  flops  of. tho 
: .centrifugal  governor  running  in  tho  box,  tho  regulation  taking 
place  by  friction  of  1  and  8  on  sides  of  box.  By  this 
mechanism  no  winding  back  of  the  phonogram  is  necessary. 


^eraa«8  lo  whom  Hiese  |lrc;;ciil;;  filial  I  tome,  reeling : 

and  the  same  has  been  placed  in  the  confidential  archives  of  the 
Patent  Office,  as  provided  by  Section  lf902,  of  the  Revised  Statutes. 

Shis  G AYE  AT  will  cease  to  be  operative  after  one  year  from 
— . . unless  the  same  shall  be  renewed. 

£Jn  testimomj  whereof  hf  have  caueeaf  they 

Note.  If,  at  any  time  within  ono  year  after  the  filing  of  a  Caveat,  another  person  applies  for  a  patent  with  which  such  Caveat 
rould  n  any  manner  interfere,  such  application  will  bo  suspondcd,and  notice  thereof  will  bo  sent  to  tho  person  filing  the  Caveat,  who 
t  lio  shall  filo  a  complete  application  within  tlireo  months  from  the  day  on  which  notice  is  sent  to  him,  will  be  entitled  to  an  inter- 
irenco  with  tiro  previous  application,  for  tho  purpose  of  proving  priority  of  invention,  and  obtaining  tho  patent  if  ho  ho  adjudged 

■  Jjgk- 

.Ed  is  on , 

Car  ft  Dyer  ft  Seely, 
40  Wa  il  S+,’. 
New  York  N.  Y. 

!  IT,  R,  PATFrn 

DEPARTMENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR*  M All  29  )  820 


Washinqtow,  d.  o . . , 

Application,  for  patent  for 
Cay  eat  Phonographs. 



Commissioner  of  Patents. 

Room  No..2f2l... . 

<0 before  applicant,  can  Ret  the  benefits  provided 
for  by  law, in  the  case  of  thin  Caveat, he  must  confine  said  Caveat 
to  a  single  invention. 

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Cb  Via.  i  iN-viA  L-y-*x~x '  a.  V  odtotjCC  C<yWA^>jjo-*^ - _<). 

'I’)«0  petition  of  Thomas  A.  Edison  a  citizen  of  the 
United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  Oounty  of 
lissox  and  State  of  Mow  Jersey,  represents: 

That  lie  lias  made  certain  Improvements  in  Phono¬ 
graphs  and  that  Jio  is  nov/  on  gaged  in  making  experiments  for 
the  purpose  of  perfecting  the  same , preparatory  to  applying 
for  Letters  Patent  therefor.  .  lie  therefore  prays  that  the 
subjoined  description  of  his  invention  may  bo  filed  as  a 
caveat  in  the  confidential  archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 

To  tho  fiommiss  loner  of  Patents , - 

Bo  H,  known  that  I,  Thomas  A.  Edison,  a  citizen  of 
tho  United  States,  residing  at  MowoHyn  Park, in  the  riounty 
of  Essex  and  State  of  How  .Ter soy, have  invented  an  Improve- 
mont  in  Phonographs  and  desiring  further  to  mature  tho  same, 
file  this  my  caveat  thorofor  and  pray  protection  of  my  right 
until  T  shall  have  maturod  my  invention. 

Tho  following  is  a  description  which  is  as  full, 
cloar  and  exact  as  I  am  able  at  this  time  to  give, refer once 
being  had  to  tho  drawings  hereto  attached. 

Figure  1,  shows  tho  shaving  knife  a  of  tho  pliono- 
graph  made  of  the  shape  shown  in  figures  j^or  v/horo  prac¬ 
tically  all  the  cutting  is  down  at  a  very  low  angle, with  a 
part  which  is  parallel  with  the  cylinder  b  which  servos  to 
obliterate  the  tool  marks  and  chipping  out  of  tho  cutting 
part  and  give  a  .perfect  non-sounding  surface.  Added  to  tho 
kniie  is  a  closed  chip  trough  c  for  carrying  away  the  chips 
produced  in  shaving  the  cylinder  and  depositing  thorn  .in  a 
receptacle.  Tho  trough  closes  tho  whole  end  of  the  knifo 
except  a  narrow  slit  just  in  front  of  the  cutting  edge.  The 
chip  as "it  loaves  the  knife  passes  up  perpendicularly  or 
nearly  so, thence  it  passes  into  the  chute  through  this  slot;  j 
the  constant  upward  movement  shoves  the  accumulated  chips 
down  tho  trough  into  the  chip  box  below. 

F’guro  4,  reprosents  a  single  chip  d  passing  from 
the  knife  into  tho  chamber  chute. 

Figures  h  and  6  show  a  hollow  knifo  for  ‘turning  the 
chip  to  the  back  of  tho  cylinder  into  a  chute. 


Figure  7,  is  a  top  view  of  figure  1. 

Figure  8,  shows  tho  bottom  bearing  of  the  spindle 
in  tho  phonograph  motor  of  phosphor  bronze. 

Figaro  9,  shows  a  pulloy^boU,  loading  from  tho  pho¬ 
nograph  cylinder  down  to  a  tiny  blower  a  with  flexible  tube 
b  leading  therefrom  to  the  turning  off  knife, not  shown,  to 
blow  the  chips  away. 

Figaro  10,  shows  a  gasometer  with  water  to  got  a 
small  but  continuous  blest. 

Figaro  11 ,  shows  a  fan  blast  snmo  as  is  used  on  me¬ 
chanical  kerosene  lamps  and  worked  by  tho  governor  on  tho 
motor  of  the  phonograph;  a  flexible  tube  a  loading  to  the 
shaving  knife  sorvos  to  blow  chips  away. 

Figure  12,  shows  a  recording  point  for  phonographs 
suoh  us  would  be  called  perfect  by  a  mechanic,  I  have  found 
however  by  oxporiment  that  in  all  brittlo  material  like  that 
U3od  for  phonograph  recording  that  tho  chip  breaks  out  be¬ 
low  the  surface  of  tho  cutting  odge, hence  leaving  a  scratchy 
surface  .whereas  if  tho  edge  is-  taken  off  like  figures 
13  and  14,  say  one-fifth  of  tho  total  cutting  edge  ,this  is 
prevented  and  a  smooth  surface  is  given  the  record. 

Figure  lb  shows  a  duplicating  apparatus  for  dupli¬ 
cating  phonograms  which  has  boon  described  in  previous  ca¬ 
veats;  tho  connection  between  tho  two  cylinders  is  by  worm 

Figure  10,  shows  stool  bolt  with  tightner. 

Figure  19,  shows  the  best  form  of  duplicating  ap¬ 
paratus.  In  this  case  both  tho  master  blank  and  the  blank 
to  be  duplicated  are  on  one  shuft.  This  insures  running 


exactly  together.  An  arm  Hire  that  usod  on  the  phonograph 
shown  at  2  carries  a  rocker  shaft  8  in  centers  connected  to 
the  arm  which  travels  as  in  ’he  phonograph  on.  straight  edges. 
4  is  the  reproducing  lever  running  into  the  records  of  the 
master  blank.  5  is  the  recording  point  which  records  the 
motions  from  4.  A  similar  rock  shaft  8  on  the  lover  car¬ 
ries  a  pressor  foot  8  resting  on  tho  mas tor  blank  close  to 
4.  A  shaving  knife  V  on  tho  sane  shaft  is  close  to  5,honco  . 
any  eccentricity  in  tho  master  is  copied  in  tho  duplicate 
and  uneven  records  are  prevented. 

Figure  20,  is  a  shaving  knife  which  is  not  fixod  but 
swings.  The  end  has  two  parts  1  which  cuts  and  8  which 
rides  in  advance  on  the  previous  record, thus  a  definite 
depth  of  cut  is  always  token  on  tho  cylinder  and  any  amount 
of  eccentricity  of  rotation  doos  not  interfere  with  tho  re¬ 
sult.  This  device  is  especially  available  on  that  class  of 
phonographs  where  no  straight  orlge  or  ways  are  used, the  re¬ 
cording  and  reproducing  apparatus  riding  on  the  blank. 

Figure  21,  shows  another  view. 

Figure  88,  shows  lover  of  cutting  tool  fixed  but 
wholo  arm  balanced  and  riding  on  record  blank. 

Figure  83  shows  tho  determining  point  lever  on  the 
phonograph  with  an  extra  lever  on  its  end  so  tho  determining 
point  will  be  the  mean  and  not  generally  the  highest  point. 

Figuro  24,  shows  tho  listening  tube  provided  with  a 
band  and  thereby  the  weight  is  sustained  by  tho  shoulder b, 
hai’d  heavy  tubing  being  permissible  .but  from  tho  support 
at  the  back  to  the  oar  very  light  tube  is  used  with  light 
ear  pieces, 

4.  85,  shows  a  disc  phonograph.  X  is  the  plato 
with  tap  or  ini?;  edge;  l  tho  blank  of  recording  material. 

Piguro  86,  shown  another  form  of  platen  for  receiv¬ 
ing  the  disc:  blank  and  holding  it  in  position. 

Piguro  8.7,  a  double  prong  swing  arm,  one  prong  hold¬ 
ing  recorder  and  reproducer, which  are  revolvod  on  a  stud  to 
bring  one  or  tho  other  into  position  or  on  a  spectacle 
as  in  regular  phonograph  .  The  other  prong  has  tho  shaving 
knife.  The  plato  is  preferably "Ittfettfed  at  an  angle.  &  is  a 
scrap or, or  brush  for  taking  chips  away  or  a  chute  0  my  bd 

Pig^ire  Si?, shows  tho  device  of  »iguro  87  arranged 
i;ith  tho  strait-ht  edge  and  provided  with  an  automatic  deter¬ 
mining  do vico. 

Piguro  89, shows  a  phonograph  based  on  tho  principle 
of  friction;  a  stearate  soluble  in  alkaline  water  is  used 
for  the  phonogram  blank, the  recording  point  being  an  elastic 
porous  sponge  like  substance  connected  like  a  lamp  wick  to 
a  reservoir  of  strong  alkaline  fluid.  While  the  cylinder 
•rotates, a  continuous  film  of  liquid  is  formed  in  linos;  on 
talking  into  the  recorder  the  wickliko  point-  presses  hnrd- 
or  or  loss  than  normal  at  oach  wavo, hence  the  record  will  be 
as  in  Piguro  80, now  the'  reproducer  has  a  plate  passing  from 
tho  diaphragm  to  the  surface  of  the  record  like  my  loud 
spoaking  telephone; tho  difl’orenco  of  friction  serves  to  re¬ 
produce  the  original  movements  of  the  recorder.  It  is  not 
even  necessary  to  use  friction  as  the  greater  or  losser  ab¬ 
sorption  of  the  stearate  of  the  alkali  swolls  it  up  and  thus 
tho  raisings  and  lowerings  may.  cause  motion  to  ho  given  a 
regular  reproducer  point. 

PigureB  3J,  38  find  33  show  mailing  cylinders  for 
phonographs,  Figure  :;p.  shows  throe  thin  shells  ,one  fitting 

in  the  other;  figure  81  shows  them  on  the  phonogram  cylinder 
and  Figure  88  sbows^  collapsible  phonogram  made  of  pap or 
and  grooved  over  this  is  placed  two  strips  of  foil, their 
edges  nearly  touching  and  the  whole  indented  and  used  in 
mails  in  collapsed  condition.  The  paper  may  be  coated  with 
wax  and  then  foil  or  grooved  and  then  foil-  or  covered  with 

v/ax  and  dipped  in  gutta  percha  in  a  solvent, which  on  evap¬ 
oration  leaves  a  fijm  which  permits  wax  to  be  indented  with¬ 
out  breaking  film,  flalata  and  allied  gums  can  be  used. Polio 
dion  in  say  acetate  amyl  or  other  solvent  can  bo  used. 

Paper  may  be  coated  with  Outta  Percha;  Palate  or 
allied  gums  from  a  very  volatile  solvent;  this  loaves  a 
surfaco  very  porous  and  easily  indented. 

Figure  84,  is  a  mailing  box  for  phonograms.  1  is  a 
soft  ruhiior  disk  secured  to  the  bottom  of  mailing  box  3  and 
8  by  an  extension.  4  is  the  phonogram, the  inner  side  taper¬ 
ing  as  well  as  the  rubber  disk. 

Figure  35,  is  a  vulcanised  rubber  blank  with  raised 
edges  at  each  end  of  tho  same  with  a  thread  out  on  them.  A 
thin  venoor  of  material  to  be  recorded  on  is  on  the  sur¬ 
face  of  the  rubber  between  tho  threads  as  shown  by  black 
lino.  After  the  record  is  made  a  shell  D  is  placed  over 
and.  screwed  on  when  the  whole  is  ready  for  mailing.  Instead 
of  vulcanised  robber,-  wood  moy  bo  used, the  space  between 
the  screw  edges  coated  with  asphalt  and  over  this  the  re¬ 
cording  material  or  sulphur  may  bo  u3od.  Hard  robber 
shells  coated  with  a  veneer  of  recording  material  of  tho 

_ U.  ' 


lowest  expansion  like  a  metallic  stearate  does  not  cause  the 
latter  to  crack  by  intense  cold  as  the  expansion  of  vulcanized 
robber  is  abnormally  lurgo  it  stands  unique  in  that  r  uspca  t  ~r* 
among  till  known  materials.  Sulphur  has  nearly  the  same  co¬ 
efficient  of  expansion  but  when  moulded  is  too  bri  ttle  to  bo 
a  substitute  for  vulcanized  rubber.  It  is  a  groat  object  to 
obtain  some  material  v/l:ich  although  not  so  tough  as  the  vul¬ 
canized  rubber  will  be  less  expansive  and  1  am  now  engaged  in 
combining  sulphur  with  a  nr  eat  number  of  materials  with  und 
without  tho  aid  of  heat  to  obtain  u  cheaper  blunk. 

Sheet  lead  and -sine  have  about  one-half  the  coefficient 
of  expansion  of  ebonite,  but  if  tho  stearate  of  tho  metal  is 
greatly  mixed  with  an  oleate  such  as  oleate  of  alumina  tho  ! 

expansion  of  the  compound  can  be  brought  down  so  that  it  will 
not  craok  if  used  in  plaoes  whore  there  is  no  Very  (treat  ex¬ 
tremes  of  temperature  Oltic  molted  with  certain  proportions  ' 

of  water  or  other  solvent  may  be  used  to  form  a  blank  to  re¬ 
place  ebonite  as  its  expansion  point  oun  be  regulated  by  „.^j 

different  ingredients,  those  i  am  now  experimenting  on.  '■■■* 

'•’inure  Mi,  sliows  an  electrolytic  method  of  separating 
(told  from  pjrrite  ore.  It  consists  of  a  trough  divided  by  a 
porous  partition.  In  each  aide  is 'a  quantity  of  good  con¬ 
ducting  coke  connected  to  the  terminals  Of  a  dynamo,  about  I 

ten  tons  of  finely  divided  pyritio  ore  placed  in  one  side- and 
the  whole  through  filled  wi th  a  strong  solution  of  oommon 
salt,  the  poles  efte^oonnee ted  so  that  chlorine  will  be  gener¬ 
ated  in  die  side  containing  tho -pyrites  and  sode  eliminated 
in  the  other  side,  after  the  whole  is  saturated  wi  th  ohlorino  I 

and  time  is  given  for  the  ohlorina tion  of  all  the  gold  tho 


liquid  is  drawn  off  from  the  pyri  tusk  side*  into  a  vat  and 
i're^sh  chloride  oi‘  sodium  solution  is  run  in  to  further  wash, 
the  (told  chloride  out,  this  is  run  into  the  tank  with  the 
first.  ‘the  Hold  is  obtained  from  this  solution  by  pre- 
cipitants  or  electrolysis  —  the  soda  solution  is  run  ulso 
into  the  vat  after  tliu  (told  is  taken  out  and  the  whole  a/tain 
becomes  chloride  of  sodium  ready  to  be  used  again,  or  the 
soda  may  be  evaporated  down  to  dryness  and  sold  as  a  bye 
produo t. 

wigure  87,  shows  a  machine  for  separating  gold  from 
pyrites.  'die  machine  consists  of  a  ciroelar  plate  of  metal 
or  hard  material  capablo  of  taking  u  polish;  this  is  several 
feet  in  diameter  and  is  inclinable  at  an  angle.  ‘Hie  plate 
is  7.  The  hopper  containing  finely  divided  ore  is  1  in 
figures  87  and  38.  K  is  a  pipe  supplied  with  water,  the  tube 
or  pipo  is  perforated  wi  th  holes  where  it  is  suspended  over 
the  revolving  plate.  IVie  ore  falling  from  the  hopper  in  a 
ihin  stream  on  the  revolving  table  is.  washed  downwurd  by  'the 
water,  the  table  however  rotates  towards  the  hopper  and  the 
force  of  the  water  and  speed  of  the  table  is  such'  that  the 
water  prevents  all  particles  lighter  than  gold  from  clinging 
to  die  table,  hence  are  carried  downward  away  from  the  hopper 
own  and  are  scraped  off  into  the  tailing  heup  by|>4,  but  any 
gold  tends  to  puss  downward  so  slowly  that  the  table  soon 
carries  it  against  the  water  and  over  the  center  where  it  is 
scraped  off  by  b  with  die  aid  of  a  stream  of  wutor  from  6.  : 

is  a  rapidly  reoiprooating  evener  whieh  causes  die  diin  film 
of  ore  to  lay  evenly  over  die  plate  and  prevent  piling  up  by 

tho  water. 


Figures  BO  und  40,  show  an  clocxrie  separator,  A  very 
thin  stream  of  the  slightly  magnetic  pyritio  oro  falling  on 
the  rotating  part  of  the  magnet,  which  consists  of  plates  of 
iron  seperated  by  non-magnotic  material  and  which  thus  pro¬ 
duces  a  sroat  number,  of  intense  linos  of  magnetic  fields, 
holds  the  pyritio  particles  on  and  are  oarriod  past  the  trough 
3,  and  are  scraped  off  by  a  scraper  on  tho  opposite  side,  the 
gold  not  kr  being  magnetic  falls  on  3. 

Figure  41,  shows  a  powerful  magnet  with  its  poles  close 
together.  From  a  no2zle  a  thin  stream  of. ore  is  forced  with 
great  veloci  ty  through  tho  powerful  field,  the  conducting 
particles  of  gold .  on  t  the  linos  of  force  and  arc  greatly  re¬ 
tarded  and  of  course  fall  behind  the  non-c onclu  tiling  partioles 
a  partition  will  serve  to  separate  them. 

Figure  4<i,  is  a  largo  high  column  of  water  on  the  top  is 
a  shallow  chamber  holding  about  one-half  a  ton  of  or'cj  tho 
bottom  of  the  chairber  is  composed  of  pi  coos  like  window  blinds 
the  blinds  being  suddenly  opened,  the  whole  of  tho  oro  in  a 
flat  sheet  drops  in  the  water  at  onoc.  At  die  bottom  of  tho 
column  of  water  is  a  very  shallow  drawer  holding  say  0  lbs, 
die  gold  owing  to  its  greater  specific  gravity  reaches  this 
drawer  first,  lienoe  when  tho  whole  is  sottlod  the  wat  er  is 
drawn  off  and  the  thin  drawer  drawn  out  the  majority  of  the 
partioles  of  gold  will  be  found  in  it. 

Figure  4»,  shows  a  rotating  copper  cylinder  wi  th  powerful 
current  passing  through  it  via  contact  brushes  on  its  edges, 
'the  ore  being  dropped  on  it  the  gold  particles  will  make  con¬ 
tact  wi  th  die  copper,  a  portion  of  the  current  v/ill  pass 
through  the  same,  dioru  will  be  mu  uial  attraction  of  the  two 


currents  and  the  fiolc!  will  stick  to  the  cylinder  while  the 
nun-condu  otinp;  ore  will  fall  off. 

Figure  44,  shows  a  substitute  for  a  blanket  used  in  ROld 
mills  for  catching  fine  particles  of  ppld.  ftlacksand  or  iron 
filing (vrro  etc.  are  thrown  into  the  sluice  box; the  bottom 
of  the  sluice  box  rests  on-  a  .long  magnet  with  say  North  Polo 
all  along  tho  bottom  while  South  Polo  rents  on  oarth.  This 
makes  a  l'ield  of  linos  ol‘  force  which  causes  the  magnetic 
particle  to  stand  up  straight  and  are  hold  so  firmly  in 
place  that  powerful  streams  of  water  cannot  carry  them  off  • 
yet  they  will  sway  and  give  so  as  to  allow  light  particles 
to  pans.  Tho  Iron  particles  may  bo  copper  plated  nr  sil¬ 
ver  plated  and  then  amalgamated  mid  act  the  same,  as  plates 
in  wet  stamping  mills. 

figure  45,  shows  a  shaking  box  filled  with  water  and 
ore  rand  shaken  by  machinery.  In  the  bottom  of  the  box  is  a 
drawer , very  shallow;  this  is  drawn  out  at  the  ond  of  tho 
operation;  most  of  the  geld  will  be  found  concentrated  in 
tho  drawer  which  holds  but  one-fiftieth  of  the  original  ore. 

Figure  46,  shows  tho  same,  the  '<ido  of  the  box  being 
lifted  off  and  the  ore  scraped  avmy  down  to  the  edges  of  the 
false  bottom  which  will  contain  the  concon+rate  . 

Figure  4?,  shows  a  method  of  shaking  the  gold  down 
to  the  bottom  of  the  trough  on  to  a  copper  plate  over  which 
is  copper  bars.  The  bars  form  one  pole  ,tho  plate  the  other, 
both  connected  to  a  source  of  electricity  and  weak  solution 
of  Bulphato  copper  is  used. Tho  gold  boing  shaken  down  and  in 
contact  with  the  plate  is  plated  to  it  by  copper  being  de- 


posited  on  the  gold  and  plate; after  it  lias  been  thoroughly 
Plated  on  the  whole  is  again  shaken  and  more  plating  takes 
place  until  tho  whole  of  the  gold  is  securely  plated  to  tho 
lower  elate;  the  plate  is  then  taken  out, scraped  or  revers¬ 
ed  in  a  plating  bvbh  and  freed.  Instead  of  plating  a  sine 
bottom  could  be  used  mid  weak  sulphuric  acid  used.  The  gold 
cumin.;  in  contact  with  the  zinc  causes  local  action  and 
gradually  oats  itself  into  the  sine. 

Figure  48,  is  tho  same  as  figure  <15  arranged  as  a 
sluice  box  . 

Figure  49  .  is  the  substitution  of  static  attraction 
for  a  magnet  in  my  separator, tho  hopper  mid  attractor  A  be¬ 
ing  continuously  changed  to  several  thousand  volts  by  a 

Figures  5n  and  51, are  fixed  magnets  within  a  rotat¬ 
ing  shell.  The  ore  which  is  pyritec  roasted  to  magnetic 
pyrites  drops  from  one  of  my  improved  hooper  slits  in  a  very 
thin  stream  on  the  drumjtho  gold  drops  off  while  the  pyrites 
are  carriod  to  a  weak  part  of  the  field  whore  they  drop 

Figure  52,  shows  the  same  apparatus  but  with  ordin-  - 
ary  hopper  and  radial  vanes  to  hold  large  pieces  of  iron 
ore,  '&ho  object  being  to  separate  magnetic  from  non-magnotic 
iron  ores  while  they  are  m  large  pieces  preparatory  to 
crushing.  / 

In  gold  separation  by  magnetism  it  .is  essential  that 
tho  pyrites  should  be  reduced  from  the  disulphide  state 
to  tho  monosulphide  state  so  as  to  make  them  magnetic. I  . 

. Jyw 0  iMnd  that,iXJhg  pyritci3_are_xery.--fl.rielv  di vidod  . -aav 


over  ono  hundred  mesh, that  only  a  superficial  induction  of 
tho  surface.  of  each  particle  is  necessary ,  the  particlo 
thon  becomes  sufficiently  magnetic  to  bo  separated;  this 
saves  exp on eos  and  prevents  oxidation  by  over- coating, thus 
rondoring  them  again  n on-magnetic. 

This  reduction  of  tho  surf nco  from  disulphide  to 
mono sulphide  can  bo  done  by  electrolysis  nascent; hydrogen 
being  eliminated  by  the  current  on  the  surface  of  the  pyrites 
combines  with  the  atom  of  sulphur  and  mokes  the  surface  mag- 
notio.  As  pyrites  are  conductors  of  electricity  it  hoennes 
an  easy  problem. 

In  amalgaaattng  processes  the  mercury  becomes 
floured  by  reason  of  the  presence  of  free  sulphur.  If  this 
is  eliminated  the  amalgamation  takes  place  as  easily  us  if 
the  ore  was  a  free  milling  one.  To  eliminate  tho  snail  quan¬ 
tity  of  free  sulphur  I  have  nnployod  several  re-agents  ac¬ 
cording  to  tho  peculiarities  of  the  ore- 

foiling  the  finely  divided  oyrites  {which  must  ho  as  fine 
as  they  are  ovor  intended  to  be. otherwise  a  further  divis¬ 
ion  would  free  sulphur)  with  a  solution  of  soda  or  alkali; 
foiling  and  washing  with  steam; 

Dissolving  out  by  bisulphide  carbon  and  other  hydrocarbon 
solvents  and  displacing  the  solvents  by  water; 

Iodine  in  bisulphide  carbon. 

Heating  pyrites  in  linseed  oil  to  cause  free  sulphur  to 
combine  with  oil  and  displacing  oil  with  water; 

Loud  salts  and  iron  scraps  to  produce  hydrogen  and  sub¬ 
sequent  washing  with  hot  water 

Figure  53, shows  trough  of  fire  clpywith  metallic 


plates.  at  oaoh  and.  Tho  space  between  tho  platan  is  filled 
with  dry  pyrites  containing  tho  gold.  A  powerful  current 
passing  between  the  plates  brings  tho  pyrites  up  to  a  rod 
boat, they  being  a  conductor, whan  they  are  roducnd  to  mono- 
sulphide.  There  is  no  danger  of  oxidation  as  this  would 
diminish  the  currant j tho  oxide  being  a  non  conductor  this 
method  is  automatic  and  perfect. 

A  large  quantity  of  ore  is  placed  in  a  pan  with  mor— 
cury  find  tho  wholo  in  a  vacuum; the  air  surrounding  tho  gold 
which  sometimes  prevonts  amalgamation .boing  absent, amalgama¬ 
tion  tokos  place. 

Another  process  I  m  wording  on  is  to  make  the 
pyrites  in  a  vat  the  two  po—les  of  immersion  and  connected  . 
to  a  dynamo  using  sulphuric  acid.  Hydrogen  given  off  on  one 
pole  reduces  the  disulphide  to  monosulphido  while  the  0 
on  tho  other  poles  combines  with  the  sulphide  to  reduce  it 
to  monosulphido  thus  making  the  pyrites  at  both  Poles  mag¬ 
netic  which  on  drying  by  a  centrifugal  machine  can  bo  workorl 
for  gold  through  the  magnetic  separator.  Tho  J-f.S. 

fanned  may  bo  used  as  a  fuel  and  tho  - -  §.o.  for 

sulphuric  acid. 

Free  sulphur  may  bo  driven  off  from  pyrites  try 
heating  to  Of>0  "Fahrenheit  and  without  altering  the'  pyritos. 

In  many  ores  of  a  pyritic  character  a  portion  of  thn 
ore  .that  is  to  sgy  tho  least  or  the  most  valuable  is  in  the 
form  of  a  magnetic  sulphide.  In  this  case  I  crush  to  such  " 
a  fineness  as  to  practically  free  then  from  each  other  and" 
than  run  then  through  the  magnetic  separator.  All  ores  of 
this  character  containing  pyrohatlte  can  be- separated  mag- 

14.  in  two  parts. 

At  Sudbury  , Canada  is  n  large  deposit  of  py Piteous 
oro  containing  cal copy rites  and  nickeliferous  pyrohatite ; 
tho  latter  is  magnetic  and  I  sop->rato  it  by  the  mngnetio. 
doporatop.  'Jho  two  ingredients  thus  separated  are  easily 
workod  by  the  ordinary  processes  .tile  if  worked  together 
are  different. 

Roasted  cal  copyrites  ore  put  in  a  bath  rind  tho  cop¬ 
per  reduced  to  metallic  state  by  hydrogen  from  electrolysis 
or  iron  and  acid- then  separated  by  jigging  or  vanning  ma¬ 
chines  or  mercury  . 

•  Rigure  !:4  is  a  kinotoscope  for  recording  and  repro¬ 
ducing  moving  objects  photographically-  14  is  the  cylinder, 
'i’ho  cylinder  is  not  round, but  parallel  with  its  length  are 
a  number  of  flat  places  about  one  thirty-seconds  of  an  inch 

wide.  This  gives  a  flat  fnco  for  the  photographic  record 
from  the  microscope  and  the  picture  is  not  thrown  out  of  fo¬ 
cus  as  it  would  ho  if  the  cylindrical  surface  was  round, es¬ 
pecially  on  very  small  cylinders  which  it.  is  necessary  to 
use  on  a  commercial  apparatus.  19  is  a  motor,  17  a  fric¬ 
tion,  lb  a  pulley, 10  a  bolt,  lb  a  pulley  on  tho  cylinder 
shaft,  315  an  '.’escapement  wheel  worked  by  escapomont  connect¬ 
ed  to  lever  33.  34  is  a  magnet  which  gives  motion  to  lover 

S3  and  escapement  31  and  33  limiting  stops  to  lover  33.  30 
is  the  extended  shaft  of  cylinder  provided  with  a  leaf  or 
key.  13  is  the  thread  or  screw  part  having  about  3b  threads 
to  the  inch;  13  the  screw  nut  which  engager  in  the  throads 
on  13.  1,  3,  3,  and  4  are  similar  magnets  to  34  with  lo¬ 

ver  limiting  stops  and  escapement  end  wheel.  A.  shaft  0  car- 

rioB  tiia  revolving  shutter  7  in  front  of  tho  objective  R; 

(i  .is  pivoted  at  9  on  a  bridge  10;  «7  in  camera  etc.  Tho  two 

r'nagnots  are  arranged  in  two  circuits  provided  with  break 
and  contact  wheels  both  on  on©  shaft  so  that  any  definite 
movomont  one  related  to  tho  other  can  bo  obtained.  Those 
brook  wheels  are  rotated  by  a  !;,'ovornod  motor.  Tho  action  is 
o.o  follows;  T/ie  cylinder  stands  still;  tho  shutter  ad vancos 
and  opens  tho  shutter  while  the  cylindor  is  still; the  pho¬ 
tographic  effect  takes  place  on  the  flat  of  tho  cylindor; the 
shutter  closes  ,thon  the  cylinder  ad vancos  another  notch, but 
such  advance  only  tokos  place  while  the  shutter  closes  off 
the  light.  These  actions  take  place  continuously  at  tho 
rate  of  fifteen  or  twenty  times  per  second.  30  shown  tho 
cylinder  with  flattened  parts.  ■ 

Figures  '50,  5fj  and'  57, show'  a  peculiar  form  of  a 
type  writer;  forty-nino  bars  one- sixty-fourth  of  rn  inch 
thick  are  massed  togothor, three  slits  of  only  lower  cane 
or  six  or  more  of  both  upper  and  lower  case  lottors  aro  to 
bo  used, passes  through  the  whole  of  the  born-  through  those 
slits  pass  all  the  keys  ;  on  tho  upper  odgo  of  the  bars,  of 
the  slit  aro  projecting  tits  right  over  tho  keys  jwhon  a  koy 
is  depressed  all  tho  bars  would  bo  lifted  up  but  tho  tits 
not  wanted  to  form  a' letter  are  out  away;  the  ends  of  all 
the  bars  are  made  small  and  massed  together  in  a  square  dio, 
Fi^n-o  m  filling  it  completely ;by  raising  cortain  bars  any 
letter  of  tho  alphabet  is  formed.  This  composite  letter 
strikes  the  ink  <;2>and  X  Pig.  59  and  the  impression  is  ta-. 
ken  on  tho  usual  cylinder  z.  Figure  00  shows  the  letters  so 



formed  owing  to  tJ>o  use  of  the  ink  ifcand  tho  resultant  lnt- 
i-er  fJi  tho  paper  scarcely  shows  the  composite’  character  of 
the  -letter .  On  tho  outside  of  all  the  bars  at  a  convenient 
point  are  a  row  of  tits;  the  whole  or  the  movement  of  any 
bar  lifts  a  lovor  and  controls  tho  feed  of  tho  printing  cyl¬ 

Figure  Gj, shows  tho  actual  size  of  tho  ends  mar, sod 

Figure  OS, shows  tho  mas sod  points  sharpened  to  a 

point  instead  of  flat J the  composite  lottor  formed  in  this 
case  is  used  to  perforate  a  stencil  from  which  n  number  of 
copies  can  be  taken  electric  pen  process. 

Figure  08,  shows  n.  typo  writ-or  of  unique  dosiaji. in¬ 
stead.  of  a  type  whool  I  place  the  let-tors  on  a  portion  of  a 
sphere  as  in  Figure  0?..  'Ibis  segment  of  sphere  is  moved 
in  any  direction  being  secured  in  on  arm  d  the  bearing  being 
a  boll  and.  socket' boaring  £.  h  is  a  lower  extension  pro¬ 
vided  with  slits  into  which  the  keys  pass  ;tbis  rotates  tho  ■ 
sphere  and  brings  the  proper  letter  to  f. 

Fil snouts  of.  carbon  placed  in  a  combustion  tube  with  a 

little  chloride  ammonium; 

Chloride  Tungsten  or  titanium  pnssod  through  hot  tube 
depositing  a  film  of  tho  metal,  on  the  carbon;  or  filaments 
of  zuconia  oxide  or  alumina  or  magnesia  thoria  or  other  ii 
fusible  oxides  mixed  or  separate  and  obtained  by  moistening 
end  squirting  through  a  die  are  thus  coated  with  above  met¬ 
als  and  used  for  incandescent' lamps.  Osmium  from  a  volatilo 
compound  of  same  thus  deposited  making  a  filament  as  good 
carbon  when  in  -§£*4.  , 

A  mailing  cylinder  for  phonographs  of  so  ff.  material 
v/hic.I.  bo  Coro  mailing  is  coated  after  record  made  with  on 
elastic  ouhstan  00,011  reception  thin  in  dissolved  off. also 
an  above,  but  before  mailing  immersed  in  a  liquid  which 
oauaois  the  material  to  become  hard  and  elastic  by  chemical 
change  such  an  by  chlorination  or  sulphurising  by  chloride 
of  sulphur  otc. 

A  blank  of  cylindrical  form  composed  of  closely 
wound  iron  wire  and  coated  with  recording  material. 

Grooved  blank  ono-hnndred  threads  nlaoed  several 
thickness  foil  over  ftSaSy-  duplicates  can  be  taken-  an 
extra  recorder  on  side  of  regular  recorder  and  detachable 
for  duplicating  both  connected  to  one  speaking  tube. 

A  split  mould  polished  inside  coated  with  film  try 
volatilization  or  plating, then  pour  wax-  and  open  mould  loav- 
Lng  a  blank  perfectly  coated  with  foil  for  indenting. 



[  2-177.] 

and  the  same  has  been  placed  in  the  confidential  archives  of  the 
P&teftt  QffiGGf  as  provided  by  Section  J/.90Q  of  the  Revised  Statutes. 

■  Sfhis  QAf EAT  will  cease  to  be  operative  after  one  year  from 
. _ unless  the  same  shall  be  renewed. 

United  States  Patent  Office, 

Washington,  d.  c., J.U ne~2l-, . 1S....89 

T*  A.  Edison,  }  Subject;  Phono  gr ap hs . . 

Care  Dyer  &  Seel y,  f  .  .  , . 

-  40  Wall  Street,  1  Caveat. 

New  ^brk,N.  X,  I  Filed  June  18,1889  jy0,  216 

11 ,267 

Please  find  l>eloui  a  communication  from  tho  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  the  application 
above  noted. 

Before  this  caveat  can  be  duly  filed  in  the 
Confidential  Archives  of  this  office,  so  as  to  entitle  applicant 
to  the  benefits  of  the  law,  such  caveat  must  be  confined  to  a 
single  invention. 




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The  petition  of  Thomas  A.  Edison  a  citizen  of  the 
United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  bounty  of 
Essex  and  State  of  Mow  Jersey, represents 

That,  he  has  made  certain  Improvements  in  Phonographs 
and  that  he  is  now  engaged  in  making  experiments  for  the  pur¬ 
pose  of  perfecting  the  same  preparatory  to  applying  for 
Letters  Patent  therefor,  He  therefore  preys  that  the  sub¬ 
joined  description  of  his  invention  may  be  filed  as  a  caveat 
in  the  confidential  archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 


.  . -- 

To  the  Oommissionor  of  Patents, 

Bo  it  knovrn  that  I,  Thomas  A.  Edison,  a  citizon  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  tho  County 
of  Essex  and  State  of  Mew  Jersey,  have  invented  ah  Improve¬ 
ment  in  Phonographs  and  desiring  further  to  mature  the  same, 
file  this  n\y  caveat  therefor  and  pray  protection  of  my  right 
until  I  shall  have  matured  my  invention. 

The  following  is  a  description  which  is  as  full, 
clear  and  exact  as  I  am  able  at  this  time  to  give, reference 
boing  had  to  the  drawings  hereto  attached. 

Figure  3  shows  a  phonograph  arm  containing  the  re¬ 
corder  find  reproducer  arranged  to  shift  and  be  brought  into 
position, not  by  tho  swinging  of  a  spectacle  as  now, but.  by 
rotation;  • 

Figure  3  shows  the  recorder  and  reproducer  rotatod 
like  a  monitor  of  a  screw  machine  so  as  to  bring  one  or  the 
other  into  position  for  work  quickly; 

Figure  4  shows  a  partial  rotation  or  side  swing  spec¬ 
tacle  like  movement  of  the  recorder  and  reproducer; 

Figure  Sshows  the  position  screw  for  determining 
the  rotation  between  the  record  blank  and  the  points  on  the 
reproducer  or  recorder;  a  spring  X  between  tho  revolving 
point  and  blank  prevents  indenting  and.  thus  disturbing  the 
accuracy  of  tho  adjustment;  '  .  :  ■ 

Figure  6  shows  a  phonograph  with  a  smooth  glass  or 
metallic  cylinder.  Instead  of  indentations  the  point  of  the 
recorder  has  a  capillary  bore  leading  from  a  reservoir  ,or 
is  provided  with  a' porous  point  or  has  a  pencil  like  point, 
of  material  which  running  on  the  cylinder  leaves  a  thin  trail 
behind  which  trail  is  thinned  or  thickened  by  the  vibrations 
of  the  diaphragm  and  point.  Ihe  reproduction  of  the  sound 
Waves  is  brought  about  by  the  chalk  telephone  action  of  work¬ 
ing  by  a  difference  of  friction;*  broadening  of  the  trail 
or  marir  increases  friction  and  gives  a  laigo  vibration  to 
the  diaphragm  of  the  reproducer , while  a  very  thin  part  6£ 
the  trail  between  vibrations  give  scarcely  any  vibration; 

Figure  7  shows  a  shell  to  bo  used  on  the  phonograph 
and  a  device  for  coating  it  with  a  thin  veneer  of  recording 
material  ; the  ring  X  servos  to  scrape  off  surplus  material 
and  gives  a  cylindrical  surface  to  the  veneer;  a  guide  rod  z 
in  bearing  1, which  opens  by  a  hinge , serves  to  porn it  the 
shell  to  descend  accurately  through  the  ring  X  without  touch¬ 
ing  ;  3  is  thn  reservoir  of  melted  material; 

Figure  34  shows  phonograph  arranged  so  a  number  of 
stethoscopio  listening  tubes  can  be  attached  to  a  common 
chamber  in  connection  with  the  phonograph  thus  permitting  a 
number  of  persons  to  listen  simultaneously; 

Figure  36  shows  a  method  of  recording  and  reproducing 
sounds  phonographically  by  using  a  highly  polished  hard, rub¬ 
ber  cylinder  or  eleotroporous  material  ,or  such  other  mater¬ 
ial  wJihch  is  easily  electrified  by  rubbing  .  The  diaphragm 
point  is  provided  with  a  fine  pointed  rubber  which  runs  con- 

tinuously  on  the  cylinder ; the  vibrations  produce  a  greater 
and  looser  electrification  of  the  surface, and  the  reproducer 
having  a  point  either  in  contact  and  works  by  a  difference 
of  friction  or  electrification  attraction  or  the  point  is 
placed  within  an  extremely  small  distance  from  the  cylinder 
is  attracted  by  electrification; 

Figure  SO  shows  a  ball  recording  point  for  that  cl  a® 
of  phonographs  which  use  foil  or  thin  material  and  act  by 
stretching  the  same  in  grooves  previously  put  in  the  cylin¬ 
der.  The  receiving  point  may  be  a  ball  smaller  but  this  is 
not  compulsory; 

W.gure  51  shows  a  method  of  duplicating  phonograph 
records, both  the  master  cylinder  and  the  cylinder  to  be  du¬ 
plicated  , being  on  the  same  shaft.  The  master  cylinder  being 
made  in  situ  by  recording  devices  which  are  removed  and  the 
duplicating  devices  put  on, this  insures  the  surface  being 
true.  The  duplicate  to  be  made  has  its  surface  turned  true 
ill  ^v/0  connected  together  ;  one  am  provided  with 
a  ball  runs  in  the  grooves  and  is  given  vibration  by  the  in¬ 
dexations;  the  other  arm  is  provided  with  a  recording  point 
and  records  these  vibrations  and  makes  a  duplicate.  The  re¬ 
cording  am  may  have  a  greater  movement  if  required  by  means 
of  leverage  and  Urns  amplify  the  sounds  or  depths  of  inden¬ 

Figure  5S  shows  the  arrangement  of  a  reproducer 
wherein  the  bearings  on  diaphragm  are  in  line  with  their 
ball  and  the  connection  made  to  the  diaphragm  by  a  link  mo¬ 
tion;  .  • 

Figure  58  shows  a  method  of  amplifying  the  sound 
from  a  phonograph  by  leverage  instead  of  a  funnel.  Hie  le¬ 
verage  is  such  that  the  movement  of  the  larger  diaphragn  is 
many  times  loss  than  that  of  the  phonograph  diaohragm.but 
the  area  of  tho  largo  diaphragm  mow  than  mtkes  up  for  loss 
of  amplitude  and  it  strikes  a  better  blow  towards  the  air; 

Figure  54  is  a  chamber  in  the  listening  tube  of  a 
phonograph  with  a  rejecting  cup.  This  cup  stops  the  short 
waves  due  to  roughness  of  the  surface  lout  does  not-  affect  the 
long  waves  of  the  record; 

Figure  54  1-8  shows  a  small  short-  glass  funnel  v 
with  cup  shape  reflector  in  front  of  it.  This  reflects  back 
the  scratchy  sounds  and  they  are  not  mode  audible  in  the 

Figures  (id,  67  ,  68,  69  ,  70  ,  71,  78,  78, and  74  are 
devices  on  recorders  and  reproducers  for  phonographs; figure 
75  shows  record  made  by  a  cylindrical  gouge  recorders  ball 
running  in  the  record  for  reproducing;  ' ' 

Figure  76  is  a  1-8  gouge  recording  point  which  mole,? 
a  record  of  circles;  figure  77  also  makes  a  round  record 
as  75  in  which  a  ball  reproducing  point  can  be  used;  figures 
78,  79,  80  and  81  reproducing  points  to  run  in  records  of 

-  0- 

corresponding  shape;  79  is  a  whod  and  honce  does  not  scrap o 
the  record  and  give  clear  reproduction;  a  ball  could  be  ugad 

Figure  8?.  shows  a  boll  which  is  arranged  so  it  acts 
like  an  universal  .-joint; figure  83  shows  the  ball  arranged 
in  a  reproducer;  figu re  84  anothor  way  of  bolding  the  revolt 
ing  ball; 

Figures  85  and  Hij  show  the  shaving  tool  used  on  pho¬ 
nograph;  in  stead  of  having  a  square  cutting  surface, the  cut¬ 
ting  edge  has  the  segment  of  a  circle  of  six  inches  in- diam¬ 
eter  as  shown  by  dotted  lines  figure  80.  This  gives  a  chip- 
always  the  same  width  according  to  depth  andh  a  s  considera¬ 
ble  latitude  of  adjustment; 

Figure  100  shows  an  improvement  on  the  phonograph  in 
respect  to  recoiding  on  Hie  cylinder  it*  elf  tho  prociso  point 
v/hero  tho  record  stopped  so  on  using  hie  cylinder  again  if 
only  1-8  its  surface  has  been  used.  The  exact  position  neces¬ 
sary  to  put  tho  recorder  will  bo  known  by  a  mark  previously 
made  on  the  cylinder  itself-  I  do  this  by  holding  a  crayon 
made  of  paraffine  and  lampblack  against  tho  rotating  cylindfr 
when  I  have  made  tho  record  and  am  ready  to  take  hie  cylin¬ 
der  off; 

Figure  101  shows  a  phonogram  marked  so  when  it  is 
again  put  on  the  phonograph  tho  position  to  sot  the  recorder 
is  shown  by  the  crayon  marie-  in  figure  100  is  a  fixed  marker 
but  tiie  crayon  may  bo  hold  by  tho  finger  itself;  - :• 

Figure  100  shows  an  automatic  device  for  determining 
the  position  of  the  recorder  or  reproducer  in  relation  to 

. ,  -a-  _ .  . . .  .  ,  , 

the  sp  eotaol o,  thn  same  being  thrown  out  automatically  after 
tho  rotation  is  established  by  the  movement  of  ilio  cylinder 
itself  and  is  similar  to  that  already  in  a  patent  ape  11  cation. 
Tho  difference  is  that^tho  position  lever  is  pivoted  in  the 
spectacle  and  swings  like  a  pendulum  bob; on  the  end  of  tho' 
lovor  is  a  screw;  this  is  split  and  hardened  to  give  it  elas- 
..  .tipity  and  prevent  the  nut  on  the  end  . from  turning.  Tho  nut 
can  be  screwed  up  or  down  thus  lengthening  the  pendulum  ;a 
flat  piece  of  b tool  with  a  slot  causes  the  pendulum  to  be 
limited  in  its  swing  to  two  fixed  points  back  and  foiwdrd  ; 
on  setting  down  the  spectacle  the  nut  on  the  pendulum  touch¬ 
es  the  phonogram  and  tho  spectacle  is  in  tho  right  position  ' 
for  clamping  X.On  starting  up  the  phonograph  the  forward 
movement  of  the  cylinder  carries  tlo  pendulum  forward'  nearly 
to  tlie  limiting  stop  where  it  rides  on  the  surface  of  tho 
cylinder;  the  bob  only  touches  the  forward  limitjshould  the 
••clamp  X  fail  to  [yip-  Tho  clanp  is  shown  in  107  :a  part  of 
the  rod  is  eccentric  corresponding  to 'an  eccentric  hole' in  ■ 
tho  pi  ate  7^  the  rotation  of  X  by  tho  pin  8  deeps  the  ro'dr': 
to  the  spectole  ann  by  a  caning  action; 

Figure  108  shows  a  false  shell  for  hoi  din g  phonogram 
blanks  so  that  instead  of  removing  and  putting  on  the  blank 
direct  on  the  cylinder  and  thus  render  it  liable  to  distor¬ 
tion  by  frequent  handling  it  is  kept  on  the  removable  shall 
until  wholly  used  up.  Tho  large  end  of  the  shell  is  provided 
with  a  flange  to  facilitate  removal  while  tho  other  end  has 
an  inward  flange  to  prevent  eccentricity  in  handling; 

Figure  109  shows  a  phonograph  blank  moulded  over 

Figures  38,  39,  30,  31,  33,  33,  34  k  35  show  various 
electric  laripa  which  give  a  high  potential  arc  a  la  Gassier 
in  partial  vacua  through  or  against  fluorescent  or  phospho¬ 
rescent  material  '  or  by  impinging  or  the  infusible  earthy  oxides 
raise  then  by  heat  evolved  to  a  high  degree  of  incandescence; 
for  this  purpose  I  use  small  fdn  heads  of  highly  porous 
lime,  stWtonia  etc.  made  extremely  light  and  porous  by  ignit¬ 
ing, .Boy  the  acetate  of  the  metal'.  Owing  to  groat  porosity 
and-  smallness  o  freight  in  proportion  to  the  si  so,  the  heat 
campt  be  conducted  away  oxcopt  very  slowly, lienee  a  small 
amount  of  current  causes  these  light  fluffy  oxide  balls  to 
become  brilliantly  incandescent!.  Another  method  of  preparing 
than  is  to  soak  cotton  cloth  thread  or  other  o ar bon i sable 
material  in  an  acetate  of  the  metal  and  burn  it  to  drive 
off  the  carbon, thus  leaving  a  fine  frame  work  of  oxide  sim¬ 
ilar  to  that  of  the  We.1  sbach  burner, but  in  iny  case  very 
small.  It  is  well  know  that  in  lamps  containing  carbon  fil- 
amonts  one  pol0  gets  very  hot  sometimes  sufficient  to  molt 
pi atina, while  the  other  polo  is  quite  cool; the  same  action' 
takes  place  in  a  ft&zsslier- tube , thence  by  making  a  lamp  a3 
in  figure  P.8.  The  reflector  of  metel  converges  the  electric 
streams  a  pun  st  the  small  boll  of  porous  finely  dividod 
oxides  through  the  center  of  which  the  electrode  passes  ,it 
is  brought  up  to  very  high  inc nndesconce.  I  use  a  very  shall 
transformer  with  each  lamp; the  primary  connected  to  the  'ele"o- 
tric  light  system  may  have,  say  200  volts, while  the  secon¬ 
dly  connected  to  the  lamp  olectr odes'  has  several  thou  sand  ’  ‘ 
volte;  In  figure  39  the' transformer  is  in  one  vacuum, while 
the  lamp  is  in  another.  In  figure  30  both  are  in  the'  sriino 


vacuum ;  figure  81  allows  a  cm  denser  in  circuit.,  Tbo  trans¬ 
form  or  c;ui  be  made  exceedingly  snail  so  as  to  be  nut  in  a 
vacuum;  Figure  88  shows  a  lamp  with  narrow  connecting  tubs 
filled  with  phosphorescing  or  rather  fluorescing  material : 
Figure  88  shows  the  some ;  Figure  8b  a  bridge  of  non  conducts 
ing'  material  with  fluoroscont  facing; 

Figure  86  showB  a  loud  speaking  telephone  but  with 
a  quarts  cylinder  and  a  beam  of  ultra  violet  light  passing 
through  the  quarts  impinging  on  the  pla'iha  surface  resting 
on  the  quartz  altors  the  friction.  Ibis  beam  of  energy  be-  " 
yond  the  ultra  violet  and  which  causes  phosphorescence  cari 
be  thrown  into  wavos  of  dots  and  dashes  and  thus  provide 
a  means  of  obtaining  sounds  and  motion  or  rather  control  of 
energy  and  hence  motion  or  the  beam  can  bo  thrown  into  waves 
of  any  kind  like  sound  waves  and  by  this  means  rendered  aud¬ 
ible  for  te.l  ephonic,  telegraphic  phonographic  and  other 

j  Figure  37  shows  an  arc  light; on  the  side  of  the 

carbons  is  a  disk  of  infusible  earthy  oxide  like  zirconi a, etc. 
A  magnet  either  permanent  or  any  electric  mapnet  draws  the 
arc  against  the  zireonia  and  raises  it  to  intense  incandos- 

Figure  38  shows  an  ordinary  arc  light, the  non  wasixwy 
il  octrode  being  surrounded  with  a  helix  wMoh  keeps  the  arc! 
jontral .  lb  a  lines  drawn  in  circles  represent  lines  of 
force; the  helix  is  over  an  iron  shell  'through  which  the  car- 
)nn  passes.  The  helix  if  necessary  may  be  rotated  by  an  eloo- 
>rio  engine; 

Figure  89  shows  an  arc  light  ,one  electrode  within 
the  othor,tho  outer  one  being  the  electrode  which  wait or 
most  rapidly;  a  rotating  maj-pot  below  not  only  rotates  the 
arc  around  and  thus  causes  the  carbons  to  wear  even  but  re¬ 
pels  the  arc  sufficient  to  keep  it  from  going  down  the  sides 

Figure  40  shows  an  ^rc  light  carbon  formed  of  two 
thin  shoets  wound  with  insulating  material  between  say  ma^ 
nesia  or  the  ijyors  may  bo  concent  rip;  on  arc  started  burns 

across  the  whole  edge  ,tho  arc  being  a  compound  or c  foimed; . 

of  several  snail  arcs;  a  rotating magnet  can  be  used  as  in 

Figure  41  shows  a  thermostatic  bar  of  two  different 
metals  and  are  heated  by  passage  of  tho  current: by  proper 
.contacts  its  bowing  can  be  made  to  work  a  ratchet  and  coun¬ 
ter  and  vibrate  by  emtaets  worked  by  its  ov n  motion  and 
the  whole  act.  as  a  motor  in  an  olectric  light  system;  ' 

Figuro  44  is  an  electric  incandescent,  lamp  having  a 
peculiar  seal  where  the  inside  part  is  joined  to  the  bulb 
or  globe-.  This  seal  instead  of  being  fused  to  melting  and 
blown  to  ah  ape- 1  malto  when  the  glass  is  only  plastic  arid"  ‘ 
about  a  full  red  and  it  is  spun  together  either  by  a  rotatirg 
clamp  like  tweeter  revolving  against  the  joint  or  the  clriMp 
is  fixed  and  the  inside  part  and  globe  are  revolved-;  no" 
blowing  is  necessary  ; Figure  44  shov/s  the  two  preparatory'  to 
sealing; figure  45  shoves  the  two  sealed  and  figure  4(i  shows 

a  diagramatic  plan  of  the  machine  used.  1  is  a  revolving 


shaft,  P.  a  hub  in  tho  end  of  which  iho  globe  is  centered,!! 
a  sliding  am  providod  with,  a  ring  5, which  produces  accurate 
centering  of  tho  vholn  globe-  9  is  also  a  revolving  head; 
both  1  and  9  revolve  together  by  connected  gearing  ;  8  is  a 
piece  of  carbon  passing  inside  of  tho  inside  part  upon  which 
tho  glass  joint  is  spun;  in  are  the  ends  of  the  so inning 
cl anp ;  the  wires  from  the  inside  part  pass  through  a  hole  in 
tho  carbon  rod;  unskilled  persons  can  make  good  seals  by  the 
plan  of  spinning; 

Figure  47  shows  an  automatic  regulator  for  arc  light 
machines  shunt  wound; 

Figure  43  shows  47  applied  to  a  series  wound  by 
,  short-circuiting; 

Figure  49  showB  regulator  where  tho  back  and  forward 
movement  of  the  resistance  is  dene  with  a  double  field  coil 
motor, the  relay  making  the  field  either  a  positive  or  nega- 
tive  direction  field  reversing  direction  of  the 

motor  according  to  the  position  of  the  relay  point;  a  worm 
and  wheel  connects  the  motor  shaft  to  resistance  box  shaft 
and  contact  aim; 

Figure  87  shows  an  incandescent  lamp  with  carbon 
filament  spiral, and  an  opening  tube  on  tho  side  of  the  bulb 
fitted  with  a  thin  sheet  of  quarts  crystal,  cemented  so  as 
to  be  air  tight;  quartz  permits  vibrations  beyond  the  ultra 
violet  to  pass  through, wlul o  glass  entirely  cuts  then  off- 
Hence  we  have  a  continuous  source  of  this  vibrational  energy 
at  our  c  onmand.  This  on  orgy  has  the  property  of  diminishing 

iL  .  _  -ii- 

polari nation  of  elootrodos  and  produces  attraction  and 
pulsion  and  other  curious  phenomena  which  may  he  of  vlaluo 
in  the  arts; 

Figure  88  is  a  vacuous  clumber  containing  a  beam 
held  by  a  fibre  or  by  bi filar  su 'pension, ’it  is  provided 
v/ith  a  mirror  for  indi eating  movements  of  the  beam-  and  n 
small  piece  of  iron  or  magnetised  steel  and  an  exterior  mntf-j 
net  controls  the  tension  on  the  suspensory  filament  and 
the  position  of  the  boom;  on  the  end  of  the  beam  is  a  disk; 

Figure  89  shows  a  mill  which  is  rotated  by  thx s 
foim  of  energy  and  is  a  truo  radiometer; 

I  am  experimenting  on  depositing  by  electrical  in¬ 
candescence  by  what  is  cal  led  tho  flashing  procoss  materials 
ether  than  carbon  on  incandescing  conductors,  Tho  mat erials 
used  are  sili curetted  hydrogen,  tribromide  of  silicon,  iodide 
of  silicon ,  chloride  silicon  for  depositing  tits  element 'Sil¬ 
icon  on  the  filament  of  metal  or  carbon, the  carbon  boing 
afterwards  retained  or  burnt  out  by  oxidation  before  putting 
in  the  lamp;  to  deposit  silicon  on  any  heated  mattes’  heated 
externally  and  not  by  the  current  by  the  process  of  Si  dot 
tho  materials  in  tho  fom  of  filaments  are  placed  in  a  tube 
boated  to  the  decomposing  point  of  the  gas  or  vapor  of  tho 
compound  cm  tabling  tho  element  to  be  deposited.  Tho  passing 
gas  or  vapor  is  decomposed  and  deposits  the  el  orient  on  the 

For  depositing  titanium  which  has  a  high  melting . 

point,  hydrocyanate  of  titanic  chloride  which  under  certain 

conditions  as  to  the  presence  of  nitrogen  deposits  nitride  of 

-  12- 


titanium  which  its  a  conductor  of  electricity  and  infusible 
In  sone  cases  I  make  a  filament  by  squirting  through  n ; (Jin 
finely  divided  nitride  of  titnniunynixod  with,  say  a  snail 
quantity  of  titanic  chi,  and  then  either  pftas  a  current 
through  the  filament  in  the  presence  of  hydro cyannto  of  ti¬ 
tanic  chloride  and  nitrogen  to  flash  the  whole  with  a  very 
coherent  layer  or  the  nitride  of  titanium  filaments  are  put 
through  the  Sidot  process. 

Por  depositing  chromium  , hoxafluorido  of  chromium 
may  housed  ;  for  depositing  malyl<ienium,pontachloride  of 
malyiJenium  may  he  used;  for  depositing  tungsten, tungstic 
hexochlnrido,  tungstic  pontachloride;  Por  depositing  osmium 
it  can  be  done  hy  placing  the  filaments  squirted  from  car-, 
bonaceous  con  pounds,  or  from  a  material  soluble  in  acids  or 
alkali, or  carbon  itself  in  a  vacuum  and  volatilising  the" 
metal  by  an  electric  arc  or  spark  similar1  in  character  to 
the'  Glassier  tube  arc  or  spark, the  filaments  being  rotated 
so  as  to  expose  every  part,  to  the  vapor.  In  fact  any  of  the 
morir  infusible  materials  ,  metal  s,  or  even  oxides  and  other 
compounds  may  be  vol ati zed  by  am  arc  or  Gerssler  tubo  action 
of  electrical  carry  and  tho  vapor  or  melted  material  depos¬ 
ited  on  any  other  material  within  the  chamborrthe  space  b'oirg 
vacuous  tho  melted  vapor  of  the  different  fusible  material 
is  not  chilled  in  passing  away  from  tho  surface  of  tho  high¬ 
ly  heated  electrodes  and  only  chills  when  it,  cones  in  con¬ 
tact  with  a  cold  objoct. 

Osmic  tetrachloride  being  docomposible  by  lie  at,  ‘the 
natal  may  bo  flashed  on  tho  filament  by  electrical  incand'es- 
aonce  or  the  Sidot  process-  Mercury  vapor  is  objectionable 
In  incandescent  larps;  bichloride  of  platinum  absorbs  the 

vapor.  |  piano  a  snail  quantity  in  the  bulb  while  exhausting 
and  remove  it  or  it  nay  be  loft  permanently  in  the -globes 
where  it  will  in  time  absorb  every  vestige  of  mercury  vapor. 

For  depositing  boron  I  use  boric  chloride  or  fluo- 
1  riclo  of  boron; a  carbon  filament  may  bo  made  by  using  iron  or 
nickel  as  the  chlorides  of  both  iron  and  nickel  and  ooppnr 
aro  volatile.  The  passage  of  the  current  through  a  filament 
of  iron  copper  or  nickel  in  a  chamber  containing  a  chloride 
of  -carbon, the  chlorine  will  be  set  f roe, combine  with  tho 
iron  copper  or  nickel  and  deposit  carbon  find  so  continue  un¬ 
til  tho  filament  is  wholly  of  carbon-  Tho  same  effect  is  ob¬ 
tained  in  greater  perfection  by  tho  Sidot  process;  sulphide 
of  carbon  can  bo  used-  in  fact  any  compound  of  carbon  may  be 
used  which  can  bo  made  gaseous  and  the  element  An  conbinatioi 
with  the  carbon  will  combine  with  the  iron, copper, nickel 
or  other  metal  and  tho  resultant  either  become  gaseous  or  a 
vapor.  Tho  halogen  carbon  compounds  are  preferable. 

To  make  porous  filaments  so  as  to  obtain  high  re¬ 
sistance  a  salt  of  iron, say  the  of  iron  .  nickel  or 
copper, is  moistened  and  squirted  into  the  form  of  a  filament 
Tito  filament  on  boating  is  reduced  to  the  metallic  state  and 
is  somewhat- porous  by  tho  action  of  incandescent  chloride 
of  carbon; the  whole  0  f  the  metal  is  displacod  by  carbon;'" 
aluminum  heated  in  the  presence  of  chloride  of  car  tan  vapor 
'is  wholly  displaced  by  carbon, the  chloride  of  aluminum  being 
volatile.  Instead  of  carbon  being  deposited  a  cm  doctor  ' 
whose  chloride  is  not  volatile  without  decomposition  can"  *  "  ‘ 
be  made  to  displace  the  conductor  of  the  original,  filament, 

tho  chloride  of  which  is  volatile.  Iodide  of  oyanogon  vola- ' 
-  14- 


tizes  about  1 20  nor  cent  rand  can  bo  used  to  froo  an  in  can- 
do  3  con  t  I.«np  from  mercury  vapor.  VJio  iodine  set  froo  com¬ 
bining  to  form  solid  iodide  of  mer-any  filaments  of  total 
of  a  shape  suitable  for  in crtn downing  lamps  can  be  made  by 
immersing  the  name  in  bisulphide  of  carbon  vfQtor  on  heating 
the  same  by  a  air  rent  or  exteriorly.  The  iron  is  chafed  to 
a  eul  phi  do  and  carbon  is  deposited.  The  Corner  can  be  on  ton 
out  by  nitric  acid  thus  leaving  a  high  resistance  filament. 

Carbon  filament  can  be  made  by  squirting  through  a 
die, asphalt  which  liras  boon  acted  upon  by  nitric  aoid.ehl'oriife 
of  sulphur  ,and  many  other  bodies  of  an  oxidising  nature  or 
a  halogen  compound  whose  chlorine  will  displace  some  of  the 
hydrogen '/of  the  asphalt.  Sulphuric  acid  and  hot  caustic 
alkalis  will  also  act  upon  the  asphalt  and  sulphur' also  to 
displace  sufficient  hydrogen  with  or  without  a  substitution 

for  some  of  the  atoms  of  hydrogen  of  the  active  re- agent'. . 

The  asphalt  product  which  In  nearly  every  case  when  finely 
divided  is  yellowish  brown, does  not  melt  like  the  original 
asphalt  owing  to  oxidation  or  displacement  of  the  hydrogen 
in  some  of  the  lower  boiling  point  hydrocarbons  which  go  to 
make  such  a  hetrogenoous  compound  as  asphalt; the  resultant 
of  the  agents  is  solvable  in  chloroform, chi. oral  hydrate  rand 
other  liquids.  The  finely  divided  material  is  kneaded  to¬ 
gether  to  a  paste  by  the  use  of  chloroform  and  then  squirted. 
•Chore  are  many  asphalt  like  residues'  that  may  be' dehydro¬ 
genised.  These  residues  aro  from  the  distillation  of  various 
hydrocrarhons  and  oxidized  hydro-enrbons.  'ibe  black  viscous 
bodies  v/hioh  rare  left,  in  the  retorts  which  are  generally 
black  can  bo  acted  on  by  a  halogen,  sulphur  or  an  oxidizer 
— li>-  or  a  polymorizer  like  sulphuric  acid,chlorido  of  zinc  etc.' 

to  render  these  residues  nearly  infusible  and  capable  of  be¬ 
ing  used  for  filaments, filament  of  asphalt  and  asphalt  like 
residues  before  being  acted  on  can  upon  application  of  heat 
to  the  squirting  press  be  squirted  into  filaments  and  then 
acted  upon  by  many  of  the  re-agents  recited, such  as  say  pent* 
achloride  of  antimony  in  a  solution  of  chloride  of  ethyl 
in  which  a  number  of  the  filaments  are  immersed  or  chloride 
of  sulphur  in  a  solution  of  common  kerosene  in  which  the 
'filaments  'are  immersed  in  the  course  of  a  few  days  it  will 
be  found  that  the  filaments  have  had  hydrogen  withdrawn  from 
them  and  in  some  cases  some  of  the  hydrogen  !ms  boon  replaced 
'  by  chlorine;  after  taken  out  of  the  solution  and  washed 
they  nan  bo  carbonized  without  distortion.  I  am  exp orimoitirp; 
pn  making  filaments  by  squirting  finely  divided  material 
moi stoned  to  a  dough  in  their  solvonts.'ihoeo  which  I  have  " 
tried  are  phlorizein  rubian.moeb  of  the  amorphous  coloring 
dye  stuff  extracts, rubianin  chi o ro-rubid ian , convol vul in , 

.  oyelaim  carthanion,hacinatoxylin,  fat  of  wax  of  shellac,  bi¬ 
hydro  sulphate  of  cyanogon,  sulphide  of  stilbone,  sajivetib, 
sulhydr amide ,  mellitic  acid,  paramido  creative,  amidosulpho- 
benzoic  acid,mallasic  acid,  mucic  acid,  sulphate  of  benzodin, 
sulphanitic  acid, the  aniline  dyes  and  pseudo  c  arbon. 

In  addition  to  the  material 8  used  for  squirted  fila¬ 
ments  I  may  add  tetrochlorohydroquinone,  ethylinic  sulphide, 
bertholots  b.i  turn  one.  .... 

;  Figure  43  shows  a  magnetic  separator  suitable  for 

Largo  pieces  of  magnetic  ore  and  is  useful  to  separate  he 
crude  material  before  it  -ontars  the  cru  shin  gmaohin  pry 

tor  final  pul'vorizaMon  and  separation,  R  is  a  hopper, n  a T&- 
rel v in g  drum  with  loaves  running  parallel  along  its  face 

like  the  loaves  of  a  paddle  wheel;  a  magnet  is  placed  in¬ 
side  secured  to  a  fixed  shaft.  'i'ho  oro  is  hold  by  the  1  oaves 
.and  the  pieces  which  are  ma,notic  are  mads  to  cling  to  the 
surface  of  the  drum  until  it  passes  to  a  point  whore  the 
ftagrietic  lines  of  force  .is  too  weak  to  hold  it  against  the 
drum; when  it  drops  off  this  is  beyond  idle  partition  cj 

Figure  8?  shows  a  slit  closed  by  a  jarring  sieve; 

Figure  88  shows  travelling  bolt  having  magnetic  ore  , 
the  magiot:'  being  changed  and  discharged  while  passing  so 
that  none  of  the  main  otic  material  touches  it.yot  tlie  whole- 
of  tho  magi  otic  material  will  be  on  top  of  tlie  tailings  " 
aft-er  it  passes  the  field  of  force;  it  thon  may  fall  vertic¬ 
ally  and  be  separated  by  alteration  of  trajectory  by  another 
m  -sgnet; 

Figure  89  shows  the  sieved  stream  passing  bnfoi-o  the 


Figure  fiO  shows  a  tumbling  barrel  filled  with  mag¬ 
netic  ore  with  air  passing  through; the  fine  non  magnetic 
dust  is  blown  out  but  tho  iron  particles  are  held  by  the 
m-ignetlihside  tho  barrel  are  parallel  strips  of  wood  so  the 
material  can  bo  rotated-  1-2  a  revolution; 

figure  C31  shows  a  Diking  chanber  over  a  m a;U et  and 
provided  with  a  blast  of  air  to  blow  tlie  fine  non  magnetic 
dust  away  ,tho  workman  raking  the  oro  to  allow  the  air  to 
catch  such  particles;  . . 

Figure  (32  shows  ore  falling  from  a  square  hopper 


through  a  slot  onto  a  very  rapid  moving  holt  dividing  it 
into  various  sizes  into  the  dividing  bins; 

Figure  63  shows  a- revd ving  pmn  with  magnetic  ore 
and  fixed  vanes ;  water  passes  up  through  the  botton  and  over¬ 
flows;  the  nonmagnetic  material  is  carried  off  Try-. the  water 
while  the  powerful  magnet-  undernoaih  prevents  the  iron  par¬ 
ticles  from  going  into  the  overflow; 

Figure  64  shows  a  shaking  slit  to  prevent  fine  ores 
sticking  in  ma-netic  separators; 

Piguro  6J)  shows  a  stream  falling  from  a  hopper  di¬ 
rectly  over  a  magnet  -of  great  surface; the  blast  of  air  is 
sufficient  to  blow  all  the  non  inafpetj^nvay  but  not  the 

Figure  97  shows  a  tumbling  barrel  with  fixed  deliv¬ 
ery  tube  under  which  is  a  powerful  electro  magnet;  finely 
divided  magnetic  iron  oros  are  tumbled  in  the  barrel  through 
which  a  gontln  stream  of  air  passes-  This  takes  the  dust  out 
of  the  ore  but  at  the  same  time  in  certain  ores  a  large  quaiv 
tity  of  fine  iron  oxide  passes  outwardly,  and  would  be  lost 
but  cannot  pass  the  magnet; 

Figure  110  shows  a  magnetic  separator  whereby  thin 
pi0.p  of  magnetic  and  non- magnetic  material  mixed  together 
wet  passes  through  a  slit  in  a  hopper  into  a  tank  of  water 
provided  with  magnet  and  partition  similar  to  that  already 
patented  by  mo.  The  upper  pine  envoys  continuously  pulp  ttf  ' 
the  hopper  while  another  pipe  takes  care  of  the  overflow  ‘  ’ 
o  f  wat  er ; 


Figure  111  shows  a  tank  filled  with  water  and  mag-  ' 
notic  and  non  magnetic  materials  making  a  vory  tliin  pulp; 
a  magnet  ovor  the  water  but  not  touching  draws  out  the 
magnetic  particles  and  on  rotating  the  magnet  to  the  posi¬ 
tion  shown  by  the  dottod.  linos  a>id  demagnetising  it, the 
iron  falls  into  a  roooptacle;  a  reservoix*  of  pulp  supplies 
a  now  cl mrgo  after  the  tub  is  tipped  on  its  bearings  and 

Fijaire  118  shows  my  regular  magnetic  separator  but 
is  provided  with  a  chanibor  which  is  symmetrical  on  both 
sidos  of  tho  fall  stream  of  fine  ore, the  symmetry  being  nec¬ 
essary  to  prevent  air  whirls  and  tie  consequent  alteration 
of  the  trajectory  of  the  stream  other  than  magnetically; 

Figure  113  shows  a  travelling  rubber  belt,  with  raise! 
sidos  and  raised  pieces  connecting  the  two  raised  sidos  at 
intervals  so  as  to  pro '/Ido  a  number  of  flat  roceptacles  to 
hold  pulp; tho  belt  is  carried  forward  continuously  and  pulp 
is  continuously  supplied  from  a  receptacle.;  in  front  is  an 
oloctro-mayiot;rrntiting  at  right,  migle  to  the  movement  of 
the  belt* this  attracts  tho  magnetic  particles,  (See  Ifiguro 
lib)  which  are  scrap  a!  off  by  a  scraper  and  fall  into  a  bin; 

Figure  114  shows  a  mappor-ic  separator  in  which  tho 
thin  pulp  falls  just  as  the  dry  stroan  of  ore  falls  in  my 
regular  separator; a  fixed  magnet  and  a  rotating  shell  at¬ 
tracts  the  magnetic  particles  out  of  the  water,  part,  fall 
over,  asst  partition,  and  part  stick  to  the  magnet  and  are  ‘ 
scraped  off;  - 

_ _ -19-  ' 

llguro  1  allows  a  morlif  of  Sir  William  Thom¬ 
son  a  'kr&y  battery  arranged  to  run  the  phonograph  continuous¬ 
ly  for  a  nuinbor  of  days  which  it  will  not  do  as  at  nrosont 
constructed.  1  is  the  phonograph, 10  is  the  load  lined 
trough,  9  wooden  separating  strips, 4  the  sinoJrrid,12  parch¬ 
ment  paper  botwoon  the  grid  and  the  loaded  bo  ft  on  and  ar-  just  under  the  sine  grid  and  wooden  pieces;  11  in  an 
open  chimney  wliicli  is  If  opt  full  of  blue  vitriol  crystal,  s;  8 
is  an  overflow  tube  leading  into  an  overflow  chamber  3,  ' 

§  is  a  reservoir  of  fresh  water*  wi+h  a  fine  capillary  end 
over  the  trough.;  »i  is  an  aim  supporting  the  resorvoir,8  is 
an  electro  magnet  and  lever  which  serves  to  close  a  valve 
of  soft  rubber.  The  reservoir  being  filled  with  water  the 
spring  13  on  the  majnot  lover  holds  the  valve  closed  and 
thus  prevents  water  passing  from  tho  reservoir’ to  the  bat¬ 
tery.  The  battery  is  at  first',  filled  and  short  circuited  •« ' 
few  hours  before  using.  If  now  the  phonograph  is  started, the 
maj-not  8  lifts  its  lever  off, the  valve  opens,  air  is  admit¬ 
ted  and  water  is  supplied  to  the  battery  ,any  excess  being  ' 
prevented  by  the  overflow  pipe;  by  this  means  the  water  * 
surrounding  tho  sine  grid  is  prevented  from  becoming  "satura¬ 
ted  rvith  sulphate  of  sine, and  tho  battery  is  constant; 

figure  11  shows  a  battery,  z  is  the  zinc,  forced  of 
sine  mercury  alloy  suspended  in  a  glass  jar  and  extending 
down  into  a  parclunent  paper  porous  coll  secured  to  tho  open¬ 
ing  in  the  bottom'  'of  the  'jab  Bv  o  is  a  carbon  cylinder  im¬ 
mersed  in  a  solution  of  an'  oxLdi zing  agent  like  bichromato 
.  of  potash  in  sulplmric  aoid.  The  latter  liquid  is  filled Up  ' 
to  the  same  heighth  as  the  liquid  in  the,  inner  flicss  'j <rr  *  ~ 

■ . . . . . _ . _ _ _ _ 

qnd  porous  cup  which  liquid  is  a  1 J5  per  cent  solution  of 
sulphuric  acid  in  water;  very  little  tendency  to  diffusion 
tuk os  place  and  a  powerful  element  is  obtained  owing  to  the 
low  resistance  of  the  parchment  paper  pores; 

Figure  8  is  a  musical,  instrument  operating  one  of 
Helmholz  artificial  Larynx' s.  It  is  provided  with  a  con¬ 
stant  source  of  air  like  an  organ.  The  two  cords  which  fom 
the  edges  of  the  slit  are  the  vocal  cords  and  their  tension 
is  controlled  by  keys.  The  keys  being  depressed  to  different 
depths  as  shown  in  figure  8  1-8  vibrations  of  every  kind  of 
pitch  within  the  human  voice  limit  are  producable  by  the 

Figure  9  shows  a  siren  worked  by  explosions  of  small 
quantities  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen  mixed  in  explosive  pro¬ 
portions.  A  rotary  wheel  3  is  provided  with  chamber  a;  a  tube 
3  leads  to  the  reservoir  of  explosivo  gas  under  slight  press- 



uro.  Tho  oh  airier  8  are  filled  with  gas  aa  they  successively 
pass  the  tube  j^but-  tho  gas  is  liberated  at  1  where  it  is 
exploded  by  the  incandescent  pi  at in a  wire; 

Figure  10  shows  a  device  for  projecting  sound  waves 
to  a  distance  without  spreading  and  in  a  straight  line-on 
the  principle  of  ®>toko  rings  fron  apertures. The  voice  direct 
'  or' an y  source  of  sound  or  a  magnet  makiijig  vibrat ion s  corres¬ 
pond  tig  to  sound  five  motion  to  tiro  bottom  of  tho  chaniior 
which  is  a  diaphragm; two  pipes  load  into  tho  chamber; from 
bottle  1  con  os  hydroohlori  o  acid  gas,  from  do.?,  conns  ammonia 
gas,  tho  two  gases  mooting  within  tiro  chamber  from  'clouds  of 
chloride  of  ammonia  which  ronomble  and  act  like  tobacco 
smoke; sound  waves  acting  on  the  dianlirngn  form  smoke 'rings 
which  are  projected  to  considerable  distances  with  groat 
rapidity  and  in  a  straight  lino; 

Figure  1?  shows  another  form  of  siren  which  can  he 
Wttdo  ••o  fcivo  vocal  sounds, music  or  articulate  so oechja 
revolving  wheel  a  foot  or  more  in  dj.  winter  is  coated  with 
l black  and  v;  a  tracing  'point  connected  to  a  diaphrarn; 
a  sinuous  wave  on  the  surface  of  tire  cylinder  near  the  edge 
is  obtained;  a  workman  translates  these  curves  into  perfo¬ 
rated  slits  through  tho  rim, some  narrow  , some  wide; over 'the" 
surface  and  routing  on  it  is  a  plate  fitting  close  to  the' 
cylinder  and  is  provided  with  a  slit  loading  to  a  pipe  in 
which  there  is  stomp  or  air  under  gfceat  pressure ; a  similar 
plate  runs  under  the  rim  and  is  provided  with  a  slit  and 
connected  to  a  large  funnel. Tho  whole  is  run  by  power'; 

Figure  18  shows  the  some  device  with  a  long  perfora¬ 
ted  strip  of  paper  or  thin  metal; 

. . _ _ _ _ _ _ -  - 

'Figure  14  shown  the  method  of  laying  out  the  elite 
or  orifices  to  correspond  to  the  sinuous  waves  originally 
traced  by  the  point  and  diapbragn  vibrated  by  sound  of  any 

Figure  lb  shown  ■>  dovice  similar  to  figure  ID; 

Figuro  16  3hovro  a  method  of  continuously  indicating 
on  a  galvanometer  th.o  depths  of  the  ocean;  the  log  bo  tig  sup¬ 
plied  with  a  continuous  current  from  a  few  colls  of  constant 
battery  forms  one  pole  and  the  ship  the  other.  Tho  resistance 
of  oarth  being  boater  than  equal  quantity  of  water  the 
gradually  interpolation'  in  tho  circuit  of  earth  as  tho  boat 
aporoaches  shallow  water  is  indi cated  on  tho  galvanometer; 

Figure  17  shows  a  method  of  preventing  in  a  groat 
measure  friction  of  the  water  against  the  hull  of  ship  and 
this  either  increase  their  snood  or  diminish  cog],  consump¬ 
tion  and  incidentally  prevent  fouling  by  barnacles-  It  con¬ 
sists  of  a  dynamo  in  the  steamer  ,onn  pole  being  ccnnootod 
to  tho  iron  hull  of  the  steamer  and  the  other  to  a  long 
pioc©  of  Shoot  iron  fastened  to  tho  side  of  the  vessel  and 
.offering  its  on  s  only  to  the  water  thus  preventing  retarda¬ 
tion.  It  is  essential  that  hydrogen  should  be  eliminated  dH 
the  hull  of  tho  ship.  If  thin  sine  sheet  is  substituted  for 
iron  the  strength  of  tho  current  is  greatly' in  creased; 

Figure  19  shows  a  form  of  telephone  receiver  wherein 
the  slight  expansions  and  contractors  a  la  T-revollyn  Docker 
at  the  points  of  contact  between  two  metals  due  to  the  heat¬ 
ing  of  the  juncture  by  passage  of  electric  waves  cn  rre'snond- 
ing  to  sound  waves  is  amplified  by  leverage  30  that  consLden- 

1 3.01 ,  say  T'fWJ a  sul-.huret,  /a  phosphide,  zinc, 

bismuth  and  antimony  aryl,  various  comtfMfcions  of  mot-al  s 
•conducting  compounds; 

'higero  pi  shows  method  of  telegraphy  at'  soajoach 
steam  or  is  provided  with  a  port  ),0li?  olosod  by  a  dtaohm/-) 
and  flush  with  the  sides  of  tho  "hip  so  thorn  is  no  rtigt- 
moo  of  water;  back  of  the  dispbnvm  is  a  chamber  contain': 
a  steam  whistle,  bavin;'  a  high  rate  and  control! od  by  a  1( 
similar  to  a  or  so  key  so  the  whistle  may  Ire  thrown  into 
Intervals  of  dots  and  dashossjnoar  this  port  hole  is  anotlu 
,n  somewhat  larger  and  closed  with  a  diaphragm  and  wall" 
::h amber  and  provided  with  stethesoopic  ear  pieces  so  as  tc 
re  very  sensitive; orry  vibrations  cosing  from  the  sea  from' 
listanco  vibrate  the  diaphragm  and  can  bo  heardjif  nocossr 
h.o  very  snail  amplitude  'of  the  receiving  diunhraf«i  may  bn 
raplifiod  on  a  smaller.  one  by'-  lev  nr  ago;  ^ 

re  81  shows  a  mot-hod  of  tel  ographing  at  sea  by 
oncils  of  electric  light  (arc  light)  thrown  upwards  at  m 
ngle  preferably  on  a  high  cloud.  The  cloud  acting  as  a  re 
lector  to  the  distant  ship  by  moans  of  a  shutter  operated 
ith  a  n'orso  key, the  beam  is  thrown  into  dots  and  dashes-'" 

kigure  88  shows  a  string  telephone  ,tho  string  or 
iro  of  which  there  can  bo  many  being  strung  on  poles  but 
'’oferably  in  tubes  placed  underground; the  very  small  vibr: 
ions  of  the  being  amplified  by  leverage  to  a  very 
id  sensitive  diaphragm- the  levotr  of  anplificat-fon  is  com-' 
>sod  oi  a  thin  wire  and  stretched  on  each  aide  by  a  silk 

thread;  this  given  groat  stiffness  to  tho  boom  lover  and  mnJfco 
it  very  light;  '  . 

Figur  o  P.8  si  10/  n  n.  method  of  talking  through  water  \ 
for  considerable  distances;  funnels  are  entirely  immersed  j 
except.  the  listening  end  ;tha  immersed  onds/1aro  clo sed  by  / 
ditiahragjn;  ^  - - y 

Pigure  B  B3  lias  an  amplifying  device  loading  by  a 
thin  wire  to  a  very  sensitive  diapltragm  outside  of  the  \mtor; 
the  water  also  in  this  case  touches  tho  immersed  larger  dia¬ 

Figure  86  shows  a  telephone  receiver  with  a  conduct¬ 
ing  rod  connected  to  the  center  of  tho  diaphragn  conposod 
of  lampblack  and  sulphur  mixed. The  heat  on  ilie  passage  of 

the  current  expands  tho  sulphur  and  gives  motion  to  the  . 

diaphragm; owing  to  the  groat  power  of  expansion  the  motion 
of  the  rod  cart  by  "a  proper  l  evel’  bo  amplified  on  tho  dia¬ 

Figaros  65  and  66  shov.  sounding  hom’d  funnels; 60  is 
arranged  prism  like  so  that,  some  part  of  tho  sides  is  in 
tune  with  somo  of  the  vibrations  passing  through  it, bonne 
Implifies  the  sound; 

Figure  93  shows  an  ompliphono  for  amplifying  sound 
and  is  suitable  for  deaf  people  in  theatres, church  etc.  a 
closed  chamber  provided  with  a  shellaced  silk  diaphragm  and 
a  central  strengthening  v/ob.  figure  93;  a  spruce  pin  sheila  cod 
on  .gives  stif  fness  without  adding  much  weight;  a  silk  "thrciiri 
from  the  centre  of  the  larger  diaphragm  passes  down 'to  the 
_______ _ -H-  _  .  .  . . .  . . 

short  end  of  a  1  ever  ,  tho  long  mid  of  which  is  connected  -bo 
a  small  diaphragm  of  thin  (fold  boaters  skin  al30  connected 
to  tho  lover  by  a  throad;the  tube'  carrying  tho  small  din- 
phragn  pulls  in  and  out/honco  tho  connecting  mechanism  enn  In 
put  under  tension; a  li stoning  tube  connects  with  tho  small 
diaphragm-  Sound  waves  striking  tho  large  diuphmgm  aro 
jToatly  amplified  on  tho  small  one  and  rohderod  more  audiblo 
than  if  received  direct  by  a  parson  somewhat  hard  of  hear¬ 

Plj^uro  117  i3  a  sound  bridge  for  measuring  tho  re¬ 
st  stance  of  tuboa and  o'lw  materials  for  convoying  sound; 

figjijto  13  shows  a  long  soft  iron  magnet  charged  by 
a  dynamo  or  magmot,the  anmbtoto  of  which  iB  an  iron  or  , 
stool  shaft  or  bar, the  object  being  to  tost,  for  flaws;  by 
disturb.’. nee  of  equal  magnetic  field  any  dissymetry  of  dis¬ 
tribution  of  magnetic  field  is  dote«4M  by  the  magnetometer 
or  by  a  revolving  coil  giving  induced  currents  and  thus 
flaw  in  the  steel'  or  iron  can  be  located  if  any  there  ar 

Figure  37  shows  a  method  of  distilling  liquids 
which  result  from  decomposition  of  liquids  by  incandescent 
electric  conductors  immersed  in  such  liquids  and  kept  hot 
by  a  current,  or  simple  distillation  by  a  hot  conductor  im-  / 
mej’sod  in  the  liquid  and  not-  'brought  up  to  such  a  degree  of 
heat  as  to  result  in  a  decomposition  of  tho  liquid; 

Figure  43  shows  a  metliod  of  obtaining  electricity 
direct  from  coal; a  i'ire  brick  chamber  contains^'.  tho  bottom 
an  iron  plate; over  this  is  placed  anthracite  coal  or  coke; 

this  in  kept  incandescent  by  tin  oxtorior  fire  box;  a  tube 
right  ovor  the  coni  ov  ooko  within  the  clumber  permits  of 
steam  being  lot  in; above  this  pipe  are  trays  of  iron  or  cop¬ 
per  containing  oxide  o  f  ccppor  or  load; this  forms  ono 
electrode, tho  coko  and  iron  bottom  tho  other-  'ilie  steam  bo-  decomposed  tho  oxygon  combines  wilt  the  coal  to  form  0  0 
and  f!  ()j_  ,  while  the  hydrogen  reduces  tho  oxido  of  load  or 
copper  to  metallic  state  to  form  1-1^ 0 ; 

Pij  nro  90  shows  an  ovine  ox-i-rd  by  stonm  produced 
by  tho  ltydrtition  and  dohy-tru'  ion  of  metallic  salts  like 
sulphate  of  copper  soda  etc. ;  a  stylo  firo  box  is  used; ono 
boiler  filled  with  tho  hydrated  salt  it?  heated  while  the 
oth.or  boiler  filled  with  the  dehydrated  salt,  is  shut  off 
from  the  fire  box  by  a  damper.  There  is  no)# water  as  tho  de¬ 
hydration  point  of  tho  salt  in  so  high  that  it  is  high  tom- 
porature  stoam  at  tho  moment  of  dehydration. Hiis  passos  into 
the  engine  and  doos  work; its  tc-'puraturo  is  lowered  until 
it  in  near  ,say  880,  when  :it|fS  stod  into  tho  boil  nr  con¬ 
taining  tho  wholly  dehydrated  salt  and  there  hydrates  it-" 
a? i.o)'  a  certain  period  tho  heat  is  shifted  and  tho  reverse' 


.  action  tokos  place, this  procos  groat  economy; 

tfiguro  91  shows  a  method  of  telegraphing  photograph* 
icallyjlong  tubos  laid  straight  of  three  or  more  inches  in 
diameter  are  a!  1  connected  togothor  and  made  air  t  ghtjat  . 
intervals  of  a  mile  or  loss  are  vacuum  pumps  for  exhausting 
the  air  which  may  have  leakcxl  into  the  tube,  the  vacuum  be- 
in. ;  maintained  in  tho  whol e  conduit  to  say  ono  millimetre  'of 
mercury.  The  oumps  are  run  by  small  oloctric  motors  all  con- 

connected  .in  series  and  worked  from  some  station,  a  bril¬ 
liantly  illuminated  object  situated  at  ono  ond  may  bo  oor- 
coivnd  at  thn  other  end  many  miles  distant  and  may  bo  photo- 
•  'graphed-  messages  etc.  il  1  nninulod  can  bo  rapidly  photOj.-ruph. 
eel  at  the  distant  end,  on  mm's  are  turnod  by  one  or  more 
prions  as  at  X  and  rbfl  no  tors;  there  bo  in  r  •  very  little  air  dust  very  little  loss  of  light  in  {50  miles  is  )md- 
Iho  curvature  of  the  ourth  is  corrected  at  interval  s  by 
qvuuts  prisms  as  in  turning  a  comer; 


bb'-iyur ll(i  shows  a  carbon  crucible  kept  brilliantly 
incandescent  by  an  el oc trie  current  in  vacuo  and  as  useful 
for  reactions  with  metals  etc.  a  high  temp.erat.ure  in  vacuo: 

'figure  118  is  a  revolving  wheel  havipg  several  cham¬ 
bers  filled  with  sponge  saturated  with  materials  giving  off. 
different  odors; all  the  chambers  are  closed  but  at  every 
revolution  each  chamber  is  uncovered  wheb  oppn'site  the  tube 
X;a  tube  also  on  the  opposite  side  has  a  slight  air  pressure 
j.n  it;  on  purging  X  to  the  no  so  and  rotating  tho  disk  com-  ' 
pound^ smells  of  a  very  curious  character  are  obtained, which 
arc  altered  by  speed  of  rotation;  . 

y^yzyyya^  (y^ 


State  of  Nov/  J or  'ey  ) 

I —  us. 

County  of  Essex  ) 

Thomas  A.  Edison  of  Llewellyn  Park, in  the  County  of 
Essex,  and  State  of  Now  J  or  soy ,  being  duly  sworn  deposes  and' 
says  that  he  verily  believes  himself  to  bo  the  original  and 
first'  inventor  of  the  Improvement  in  Phonographs  sot  forth 
in  tit©  sumexed  caveat  and  that  ho  is  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States.  ^ 

Swcrn  to  and  subscribed  before  me  ) 


C  2-177.] 

all  pcniomi  fa  luham  lltcse  ^rwcufs  filuill  came,  greeting  t 

and  the ■  same  has  been  placed  in  the  confidential  archives  of  the 
Patent  Office,  as  provided  by  Section  lt-903,  of  the  Revised  Statutes. 
Shis  0 AWE  AT  will  cease  to  be  operative  after  one  year  from 
. ,  unless  the  same  shall  be  renevued. 

•  ;  '  Pepartment  of  the  interior,  .  yi"  «  1 

/  United  States  Patent  Office,  ®  ° 

Washington,  o.  c.,..jiug7<..jat.i8a9 _ 

Thos.  A. Edison,  \ Subject.-  Caveat  -  Phonographs. 

,  Care  Ityer  &  Seely,  (  ' 

40  Wall  St.,  ( 

New  York  City.  ■  /Piled  Aug.  5,1889,NoJ3^lfe' 

Please  find,  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  charge  of  the  application 
above  noted. 


Room  No.  -23] _  °  _  -  -  Commissioner  of  Patents. 

Before  spplicant  cam  receive  the  protection 
provided  by  lav  for  ihis  Caveat,  he  mist  confine  the  specifica¬ 
tion  and  drawing  to  a  singl®  subj  ect  of  'invention. 

't'lL  ~ 

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Be  it  known  that  I,  Thomas  Alva  Edison,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Esbox,  and  State  of  Now  Jersey,  having  invented  Improve¬ 
ments'  in  Phonographs,  and  desiring  further  to  mature  the 
same,  file'  this  my  oaveat  therefor,  and  pray  protection  of 
my  right  until  I  shall  have  matured  my  invention. 

Bie  following  is  a  description  of  my  newly-invented 
Improvements  in  Phonographs,  which  is  as  full,  dear,  and 
oxaot  as  I  am  able  at  this  time  to  give,  reference  being  had 
to  the  drawing  hereto  annexed. 

Figure  l  shows  a  reproducer  wherein  tile  return  motioi 

of  the  diaphragm  from  the  record  material  is  oheoked.  This 

cheoking  is  made  to  exactly  imitate  the  gradually  increasing 

retardation  of  the  recording  tool  as  it  enters  deoper  and 

deeper  into  the  recording  material  in  making  a  vibration. 

Hsnoe  to  produce  a  perfectly  true  wavo  to  exactly  correspond 

ito  the  sound  wave  it  is  essential  that  a  retarding  motion  as 

near  as  possible  imitating  the  down  motion  should  be  eoJlTVeot. 

ed  to  the  diaphragm.  By  means  of  a  small  elastic  ball  pross- 

ing  very  slightly  on  the  diaphragm  on  the  opposite  side  to 

the  recording  tool  this  is  .accomplished  .  A  forward  motion 

>f  the  diaphragm  meets  gradually  increasing  retardation  by 

the  reoord  material  all  pressure  of  the  rubber  ball  from 

the  diaphragm  is  removed  but  on  reversing  the  direction  the 

'etardation  of  tiio  ball  gradually  increases;  and  so  in  a 

teas  lire  the  diaphragm  as  far  as  retardation  outside  of  elas- 
is  concerned 

icity  of  diaphragm Ais  the  same  at  every  part  of  the  move- 

j  ment.A  more  perfoot  imitation  would  be  an  air  vano  or  air 
dabh  pot,a  valve  op  ening  on  the  record  point  working  and 
the  valve  closing  and  retarding  on  return  motion.  The  rubbe 
stores  up  elastic  or  spring  force  while  the  retardation  of 
the  point  in  the  record  material  does  not,  -  hence  the  imita¬ 
tion  with  rubber  is  not  perfect.  Figures  a,  3,  4,  5,  and 
6  show  different  devioes  for  holding  and  adjusting  the  rub¬ 
ber  dampening  ball. 

Figure  7  shows  phonograph  reco  id er  to  obviate  de¬ 
fect  of  ecoentrioity  of  the  phonogram. 

Figure  8  shows  X  main  shaft  of  phonograph  with  a 
thread  which  is  a  worn  over  this  two  worm  whool  press;  both 
are  connected  together  by  bevel  gear  wheels  or  they  may  bo 
aide  by  side  and  connoot  by  goar  wheels;  one  is  arranged  to 
run' faster  than  the  other  by  moans  of  the  gears,  hence  both 
being  fixed  to  the  travelling  arm  both  rotate  but  the  arm 
is  oaused  to  go  forward  the  same  as  if  there  was  a  1  2  3 
or  800  thread  screw. 

Figure  9  shows  a  slow  feed;  a  word  being  on  phono¬ 
graph  shaft  rotates  a  worm  wheel  and  the  shaft  oarries  a 
drum  over  which  fine  steel  wire  le  wound  {this  is  unwound 
as  the  phonograph  rotates; a  weight  attached  to  the  arm  of  the 
the  traveller  serves  to  pull  the  carriage  along  as  the  wire 
is  unwound.  • 

Figure  10  shows  a  continuous  at oel  band  perforated 
with  holes;  the  pin  on  the  travelling  am  engegos  in  a  hole 
and  ie  oarried  fo  rward  by  the  stoel  belt;  the  drums  over  ' 


Whioh  it  passes  are  also  ft, 11  of  pins  which  pasa  in  and  out 
of  the  holes  while  the  band  passes  over  them, this  makes  the 
motion  positive.  By  slipping  on  the  main  shaft  different 
worms  and  on  the  right  angle  shaft" different  worm  wheels  any 
fineness  of  food  may  bo  obtained. 

r°  11  similar  to  No.  8;  the  two  sorewe  both 
revolve  the  wheel  in  the .same  direction  but  one  faster  than 
the  other,  hence  the  arm  will  move  slowly  forward  notwith¬ 
standing  both  screws  have  eoarso  threads. 

Figure  18  is  a  phonograph  recorier.tho  recording 
tool  being  as  show,  in  Figure  18  a  half  ball . 

Figure  14  is  apparatus  for  the  deaf  shown  in  a  pre¬ 
vious  caveat. The  difference  here  is  that  instead  of  a  pivot¬ 
ed  bearing  for  the  amplifying  lover  its  bearing  is  on  a 
torsion  wire  which  is  adjustable  ,X  being  in  Figure  IS  like 
the  tightner  of  strings  on  a- rau sical  instrument. 

Figure  16  is  a  magnetic  separator  for  ores;  a 
trough  X  in  Figure  17  has  passing  through  it  pulp  very  thin 
land  containing  the  magnetic  material;^  passing  the  latter 
[is  lifted  out  of  the  trough  and  as  the  magnet  is  rotated  is 
scraped  off  by  the-  soraper  . 

Figure  18  shows  a  sheet  of  water  falling  in  front 
of  the  falling  stream  of  fine  magnetic  ore;  the  magnetic  par¬ 
ti  oles  are  attracted  to  the  water  and  throutfi  it  no  qilioa 
or  non  majestic  material  oan  get  through  and  no  float  is  pos¬ 
sible  towards-  the  concentrating  side- 


Figure  10  shows  the  stream  of  water  filled  with 

Figure  80  shows  the  falling  stream  broken  up  into 

Figure  83  shows  the  method  of  mixing  the  ore  and  wa¬ 
ter  before  it  falls  as  a  sheet  . 

Figure  83,  a  belt  machine  of  rubber  with  cross  bars, 
for  holding  pulp.  1  is  supply  water,  8  the  ore  hoppor,  8 
the  separator. 

Figure  81  shows  a  circular  stream  separator. 

Figure  84  shows  a  photometer  for  central  oleotrio 
light ing" stations  to  indicate  tho  volts  at  the  ends  of  tho 
feeders;  a  box  containing  several  apartments  each  containing 
an  incandescent  lanp  (soe  Figure'  85)  connected  to  a  feeder; 
the  front  faoe  is  closed"  by  i> bp  er 'with  a  round  grease  spot 
in  the  cantor  of  each  partition; 'from  another  box  facing 
proceed  tho  rays  of  a  Oar cel  lamju>  When  no  spots  are  seen 
the  volts  are  right  and  are  low  or  hi#i  as  the  spot  appears 
and  has  one  or  the  other  color  which  is  quite  different  as^ 
the  electric  or  the  Oarool  light  predominates.  • 

Figure  86  shows  a  phonogram  blank  prepared  by  a 
grooving  tool  set  in  advanco  of  the  recorder  and  a  recorder 
having  a  ball  reoo ud ing  point  whidi  rides  on  the  apex  of  the 
shaped. tops;  no  s  tock  is:  taken  out  of  the  phonogramjin- 
stead  of  a  ball  a  round  cylinder  as  in  Figure  87i  may  bo 


rd  be- 

.  ,  "  '  "  ■&. 

S’irj'iPe  37  show b  this  fora  of  recording. 

Figure  38  is  a  ball  recording  point,  the 
ing  mado  by  pushing  away  the  at' oak  of  the  side  which  ha$ 

I  been  previously  grooved  by  a  tool  in  advanoe  of  the  record¬ 
ing  ball,  The  reoo  iver  points  are  preferably  as  shown  in 
Figuro  87 1. 

Figure  39  shows  a  ball  for  determining  the  position 
of  the  apeot.ttole  in  relation  to  the  surface  of  the  phono¬ 
gram.  Its  weight  keeps  it  on  tho  low  or  side  but  after  the 
spectacle  is  set  tho  forward  motion  of  the  cylinder  carries 
the  ball  forward,  Instead  of  a  ball  the  lever  could  be  piv¬ 
oted  and  have  a  wheel;  going  over  the  center  frees  it. 

/  Figure  33  shows  a  levpr  on  both  sides  of  the  spec¬ 
tacle,  ' 

|  Figure  80  shows  an  ironing  wheel  to  true  the  cylin- 

3er  and  iron  oHjfthe  oylinder;  this  ia  oold  while  the  wax  is 
vanned  while  being  ironed. 

Figure  81  is  a  turning  off  tool  for  trueing  a  oylin- 
ier  in  -Situ  befo  reusing  {while  rotating  tho  whole  knife 
■s  fed  exceedingly  slowly  towards  the  cylinder  by  a  worm  and 

die  el  .  ■  ••  • 

Figure  88  showa  a  phonograph  which  has  recorded  sov- 
iral  messages  consisting  of  dots  and  dashes  composed  of 

faves  of  different  musical  pitches  A  magnet  serving  to 
lve  motion  to  the  diaphragm.  The  different  messages  are 
separated  from  eaoh  othorso  operators  oan  oopy  them  by 


means  of  resonators  tuned  to  a  different  pitch  from  each 

Figure  34  shows  a  looking  device  for  phonograph  spec- 


Figure  35  the  same, the  two  rods  being  earned  togeth¬ 
er  when  in  proper  position. 

1  "MW»W»  #6  shows  an  automatic  looking  and  determining 
dovioo.  Tine  forward  motion  of  tile  rider  works  an  arm  from 
the  bolt  near  the  handle  and  cams  it  tight  by  moans  of  ec¬ 
centricity  in  a  part  of  the  bolt  ahd  'a  corresponding  eccen¬ 
tricity  in  the  Plato  and  already  described  in  a  previous  oa- 

j  figure  37  shows  it  more  in  detail;at  X  the  connec¬ 

tion  is  made  and  may  be  a  friction  contact. 

Figure  88  shows  the  rolling  forward  of  the  detonnin*. 
tor  a  considerable  dlstanoo  when  the  circumference  of  the 
[wheel  abruptly  ends.  Owing  to 'the  friction  oonnootion  at  X 
the  looking  of  the  bolt  is  soou  red  before  this  point  arrives- 

Figu  re  3g  slows  it  connected  butter. 

For  making  glass  globes  for  inoandesotfit  lanpa 
and  parts; also  for  prisms  and  shoots  for  the  passage  of  the 
vibrations  beyond  the  ultra  violet. for  phonographic  and  tele¬ 
phonic  diaphragms,  for  casting  different  art  id  os  to  shepa  ■ 
and  size  in  a  hot  mould  I  use  fused  pyrophosphate  of  Calcium. 

Por  uoo  in  dehydration  chemical  steam  engines’ 


1  add  to  the  list,  '  ■  . 

I  Alumino  potossie  sulphate, 

Phosphate  of  sodium, 

Borate  of  sodium,  and  the 

Double  salts  of  pyrophosphate  of 

soda  and  phosphate  of  zinc  do  .  manganese 

ditto  copp.or- 

Oxide  of  copper  (0  uO).  if  moistened  with  on  alkaline 
solution  pressed  into  plates  by  hydraulic  pressure,  and  then 
subjected  to  a  full  rod  hoot  for  two  hours  becomes  very  hard1 
afid  coherent  if  one  plate  is  put  in  a  battery  jar  while  the- 
other  plate  is  put  in  a  solution  of  hypophosphorous  acid  the 
oxide  is  turned  into  a  hydride  of  ooppor,  if  this  is  op- 
posed  to  thb  oxide  of  copper  plate  in  an  alkaline  solution 
and  tho  plates  connected  by  a  wire, wound  around  then  or  in 
tfrids,  a  current  is  obtained,  water  being  formed,  tho  H 

I >f  the  copper  combining  with-  the  0  of  tho  oxide  ih  the  other 
late, until  both  plates  are  reduced  to  metallic  copper  when 
hey  may  again  be  rejuvonated  by  heat' and  one  by  immersion 
W  the  hypophosphorous  acid  solution.  ••  ; 

It  is  very,  desirablo  to  obtain  ^olid  moulded  plates 
f  peroxide  of  lead  chemically  which  will  give  as  good  rosc^is 
a  sulphuric  acid  or  alkuline  solutions  as  theporoxido 
f  lead  in  the  storage  ba  ttehy  p’roduoed  by  electrolysis. 

•  r8d  load  i'e  moistened  with  say  water- or  weak  alkaline  ■  - 

folu  tion  and  moulded  by  pressure  into  the  form  of  plates  arid* 
hen  subjected  to  any  of  tho  many  chlorinating  substances'-  r» 
n  the  presence  of  water,  oxygen  is  •;  et  froe  and  tho  red  '  *'*■ 
Load  is  raisod  to  peroxido  of  lead  but  thi's  used  under  the 


od  does  not  give  tbo  seme  results. At  first  When  used  in 
connection  with  zinc  -in  -sulphuric  acid  solution  it  gives 
fairly  high  volts  but  rapidly  loses  its  voltage  which  is  not 
the  case  with  that" ole otroly''ti'eally  produced.  1  propose  moul¬ 
ding  the  red  lead  plate  arid  thort  raising  eleotroly tically 
to'poroxido  but' after  the  first  preparation  all  subsequent 
reproductions  are  to  bo  obtained  chemically.  By  ooating  tho  ■' 
grid  originally  with  peroxide  of  load  electrolyti cully  'vary 
thinly  and  then  moulding  the  rod  lead  over  this  and  peroxide 
izing  in  the  chemical  way  the  desi red' result  Hay  be  produced 
•  It  may  bo  that  the  electrolytic  peroxide  is  partly  an  anhy¬ 
dride  and  part  a  hydrate  and  would' bo  better  if  it  wore 
purely  an  anhydride.  To  makd  an  anhydrous  peroxide  the  red 
load  plates  may  be  immersed  in' other  containing  hydrogen 
peroxide  in  solution; also  submitted  to  dry  ozone, or  immer¬ 
sion  in  strong  sulphuric  acid  containing  small  quantity  of 
water  and  then  passing  hypoohlorous  acid  and  other  gaseous 
'agents  which  liberate- nascent  oxygenv  The  sulphuric  acid  in 

this  case  acts  as  a  dehydrating  agent.  Hydrofluorio  and 

•phosphoric  acid, chloride  zinc  arid  other- dehydrating  agents 

might  be  used.  The  solid  plates  of  red  lead  mioJit  be  pcr- 
oxidizcd  and  be  a  hydrate'  and' 'afterward  the  plates  could  be' 
immersed  in  a  dohydratiri’g  agent  froo  from  solvent  action  and 
tho  water  taken  from  the  hydrido-thus  rendering  the  plates 
anhydrous  is  po>ssi bio  that  theVloworingjjf  tho 
volts  is  duo  to  the  chemically  ppoparod  peroxido  not  making 
/to od  contact  with  iteolf  "so  es;  to  allow  of  elootriool  con¬ 
duction  and  being  iri" loose'  contact  permits  the  passage  of 
the  eleotrolytA  between  ’the ‘p articles  which  then  produces  > 


a  reduction  of  ono  side  of  one  particle  to  metallio  lead  and 
the  other  to  protoxide  wl.iehris  a  non  conductor  -  this  would 
aooount  for  the  loss  in  volt  also  and  the  gradually  increasing 
roeietanoe  of  the  battery.  Now  this  otn  be  obviated  by 
moulding  the  red  lead  in  a  grid  by  powerful  pressure  and 
then  by  a  further' action  so  restrain  its  expanding  when  be¬ 
ing  peroxidizod  chemically  that  die  pressure  will  be  very 
much  increased  so  that-  what  the  whole  is  reduced  to  metallic 

the  pressure  is  still  considerable' v  The  lead  grid  might  be 
like  a  printers  chaee  around  the- edges  but  inside  like  a 
window^  the  outside  £^*^tbe'ing' of  liron  and  the  rod  lead  forc¬ 
ed  into  tli o  panels  while  the  outside  of  the  lead  grid  is 
bound  in'  the  iron  chase  on  the  sides,  sheet  lead  can  be  used 
full',  of  holes .  The  iron  of  course  is  varnished^ on  pcroxida- 
tiortjthe  red  lead  swells  frbra  the  absorption  of  oxygen  and 
this  exerts  an  increased  pressure  so  that  when  fully  per- 
oxidized  the  pressure  on  each  particle  is  so  groat  as  to 
insure  good  electrical  oontaot  end- also  prevent  tlie  eloo- 
trolytc  from  ponct  rating  by  capillarl ty.  The  plates  mi^it  bo 
peroxfdized  ehomioally  not  under  pressure  and  then  by  pow¬ 
erful  springs  acting  continuously  keep  pressure  on  while 
being  used. To  permit  of  the  penetration  of  both  the  gases 
to  peroxidize  as  woll  as  the  elootrolyte  while  being  used  an^ 

at  the  same  time  to  preserve;  tha  pressure,  pulverized  porpus 
cell  material  or  porous  powdered.  char ooal  or  equivalent  sub- 
stanoa  ;  steel  tubes  say  4 'inch  inside  diameter  lined  with 

,ad  and  perforated  with  many  hoi 6e i  also  lined  with  lead 
,a  tho  oii  alio  of  Wb,  or  rolhoo  oo***4 

.»  X..0  .0  <b«  Of  *0  0.00!  «  .«  »  — *  ' 


with  tho  electrolyte.  Tho  holes  are  very  small,  1-sA  of 

inch  but  very  numerous; at  the  top  of  the  tube  which  does  not 
enter  the  eluotrolyte  and  is  not  coated  with  load  is  a 
screw  and  .plunder. Tho  bottom  of  the  tube  is  dosed. The  wholi 
is  f  Hied  with  a  mixture  of  chemically  made  peroxide  of 
lead  mixed  With  a  ‘suffi'bieht  cjuunti  ty  of  porous  material  ca¬ 
pable  of  withstanding  great  pressure;  The  plunger  is  screwed 
down  on  a  spring  wash  or  over- a  solid  washer,  ihe  bottom  of 
the  solid  washer  to '  be  coa  ted  with  platina-any  degree  of 

pfoefeure  la  obtained-  ••good  contact  is  maintained  during  the 

action  of  the  bait  ary .Two  such  electrodes  are  used;  onerc- 
ducod  to  metallic  load  from  litharge  by  hydrogen  acts  as  the 
positive  el eot rode, while  the  other  or  peroxide  acts  as  the 
negative^  Thus  wo  can-got  electricity  directly  from  chemi¬ 

cal  action  produced  by  hoatjol  cou  re  a  a  single  pe  oxide  tube 
in  alkaline  or  better  sulphuric  acid  solution  with  amalgama¬ 

ted  sine  will  give  a  powerful  battery . 

Battory  scheme!- Phoaphi  t  e  of  chromium  as  a  positive 
clement .  '  “ :  •• 

OuO  as  a  negative  element  in  alkaline  solutions. 

Ho. 2  phosphite  of1  lead- in  lead*  grid  and-  finely  di¬ 
vided  lead  , in  sulphuric  acid- 

Noi»  Same  but  zino  instead  of  lead  in  sulphurio  acid 
or  alkaline  solution.  • 

No-.  4  Di cupric  orthophosphate  fo r  negative, zinc  in 
alkaline  solu  tion- for  positive. 

No. 8  Trioupric  ortiiophdsphdte  in  alkaline  solution 
with  zinc  4fr.fcCupri'o”py.ropho  qDhate  y  in  alkaline 
solution  with  zinc.:  .  , , 


For  mixing  with  stearato  soda  Tor  phonograph  cyl¬ 
inders  to  vendor  them  r.o re  amurphous, 

Hydrates  of  moftnosium-  eo lolly;  " 

trihydrate  of  alumina-  also. 

Phosphate  of  alumina 
1  iaxame top ho'sph ate  of  marhosium. 

For  making  vory  iiuro'  Stoaric  acid  I  dissolve  it  in 
alcohol  and  chill  it  out  usinfj  the  stoarie  aoid  so  obtuined 
as  b.iso  for  phonograph  cylinders  in  combination  with  an 
oxide  like  soda  and  alum  in  a- 

1  ’Che  stoarate  of  soda  and  stearate  of  alunina  tvhi  ch 

form  the  cylinder  may  bo  dissolved  in  alcohol  and  ohillo'd - 

"out  leaving  a  very  pure  material  which  is  then  melted  ard . 

cast  into  cylinders.  To  prevent  orys tali aati on  of  stearate 
of  soda  or  other  s tearntss  wliich1  crystallize  and  alone  are 
unsuitable  for  phonographic  rocordin?:;  I  mixed  a  stoarate  or 
similar  fatty  body  or  body  mixablo  with  the  stearate  of  soda 
which  i3  highly  amorphous  and  this  in  most  cases  p  revon  ts  "’-t- 
crystalixati  on;  in  many  cases  the  amorphous  material  aloncrr 
may  bo  used  without  the  6tearate  but  Renorally  tlioy  are'  nbt“ 

so  cheap;  Thus  .  • 

Oleamidc,  oxalate  of  calcium' 

Palmitatc  of  lead  marmi tie  palnii tats, 

Sulpho-aeid  of  pardberizeno  cochin cd  with  barium 

Action  of  hydrochloric  acid  on  amarin; 

Trini tramarin;  andiorate  of  barium 

Ancluisin  Andaquies  wax 

(Oera  do  los  Andaquies)  anemonic  acid 

Ao'iion  of  p.mtaohloride  of  phosphorus  on  hydride  of 

Carbon  filaments  ma 

from  potato  fat  .. 

'  ed  with  «ther  and  squirted  through  a  press  and  carbonized. 

PiRiire  40  shows  a  mothori  of  tnrnih/’;  kiwxxB  pig  iron 
.  into  wrought  iron.  D  is  k  box,  0  is  sn»<i,  A  is  murfn.Ue 
oxide  and  sand,  d  <i'  are  electrodes  of  wrought  iron,  X  iu 
'the  -mol ■ton  bar  of  pig  iron  Just  poured  fiom  the  blast  fur- 
na'oe. The  heat  from  the  current  passing  throutfi  the  molten 
’’natal  brings  it  to  a  very  hi, *  {some  of  the  oXy- 
K*n  fr«">  Mo  iron  ox ido'  rising  and  boiling  through  the  liquid 
burns  out  the  carboj(i;owing  to  tho  groat  power  of  the  current 
the  iron  when  turned  to  wrought  may  b0  Jsept  still  liquid  and 
not  pasty  as  in  a  puddling  fUrnace-  small  quantifies  of  some 
other  oxygen  producer, such  as  black  oxide  of  mmgan^so, 
head  or  chromate  lead,  red  haemi  tifro  with  the  map/iotio  oxide. 
Mapy  articles  moulded  to  shape  can  be  turned  into  wrought 
iron  in  situ.  'Clio  strength  of  tho  current  is  regulated  at  E 

Pifitire  41  shows  method  of  getting  a  great  length  of 
molten  pig  to  save  loss  by  conduc-fa^to  the  eloot  rodos,  which 

;reat  factor  when  short  pigs  i 

’  sed.  'fli is  principle 

can  be  applied  to  a  puddling  furnace  ;  the  devioe  41  being 
used  in  this  case  no  stirring  is  necessary  and  very  much  lus 
electricity  is  required. 

I  have  ascertained  the  rousoh  why  blast  furnaces  can 
not  control  the  quality  of  the  pig  iron  produced  and  have  ’ 
obtained  a  simple  remedy  therefore.  Pig  iron  is  known  as  No. 

1  S  »  and  white  iron. "No.  1  is  the  most  valuable  ,bein6  ■ 


softer  and  highly  erystaline  while  «  .'5  and  white  an.  less 
valuable,  tin;  crystals  becoming  smaller  and  the  iron  harder. 
The  reason  is  the  rate  of  cooling  of  the  pi g  relative  to  the 
constitution  of  the  molten  metal  and  its  temperature^ the 
condition  as  to  moisture  and  hunt  conductivity  of  the  sand 
so  the  Sr  e  bei  ng  60  many  constantly  changing  oondi  lions,  fur- 
nacb  men  have  been  unable  to  control  their  product. I  elimin-: 
ate  all  of  the  changeable  conditions  and  reduce  it  to  one 
which  is  independent  of  the  quality  or  temp  era  tu  re  of  the 
molten  metal  in  practice-  The  pig  iron  moulds  aro  of  sheet 
iron  in  a  clumber  where  no  draughts  of  air  take  place.  The 
inner  part  of  the  sheet  iron  mould  is  lined  with  magnesia 
in  a  finely  divided  and  porous  state  so  that  its  hoat  con¬ 
ductivity  is  very  small,  'Hie  shoot  iron  mould  is  supported' 
at  several  points  by  strong  but  porous  fife  brick  having  - 
small  contact  with  it  so  that  ibex  nourly  the  whole  of  the 
heat  of  the  cooling  pTg  must  be  lost  by  radiation  and  con- 
veotion  through  an  air  space  and.  not  b^/  conduction, hone e  it 
is  a  groat  ob.joct  to  reduce  the  total  radiating  surface  of 
the  cooling  pig  as  low  as  is  practicable  to  the  end  that 
the  bar  will  take  several  times  as  Ion/;  to  set  as  those  poUr_i- 
ed  under  the  usual  conditions  so  that  the  iron  shall  be 
highly  erystaline  and  allow  the  carbon  t,o  orystalize  out. 

All  of  the  shoot  iron  moulds  are  oonnected  by  sheet  iron 
troughs  similarly  mado  and • conn oct od  together  and  the  whole 
g*ng  of  moulds  worked  as  now;- the  trough  leading  from  the 
blast  furnace  is  covered  to  prevent  chilling- 

Noarly  the  whole  of  the  iron  if  thus  slowly  oooled 
will  be  Mo,  1  foundry  .-  Another  plan  is  to  put  the  whole  'k 


j  of  the  moulds  connected  with  the  furnace  in  a  fire  brick 
chamber  find  kept  at  a  red  or  yellow  heat  by  the  waste  heat 
of  the  furnnoe  to  obtain  a  still  slower  cooling  of  the  pi g 
especially  at  the  yellow  •hfja't  noint- 

Another  improvement  in  blast  furnace  practice  is  to 
ascertain  the  position  of  the  iron  and  slap;  in  the  bottom 
of  the  furnace  by  putting  in  double  electrodes  at  certain 
points  above  whidi  the  iron  and  cinder  must  not  go  and  as 
both  the  iron  and  slap;  arc  conductors,  when  they  roach  a  ' 
certain  point  close  the  circuits  and  ring  bclls.xS&cjnsitBxxx.. 
the  iron  electrodes  having;  a  weaker  battery  and  low  resist¬ 
ance  boll  than  the  slag  so  that  the  si  a;;  will  have  no  effect 
on  the  electrodes  intended  tor  indicate  height  of  iron  in 
the  well  and  vice  versa. 

Another  improvement  in  working  fine  or  con  centra  ted 
ores  with  large  ore  and  coal  is  to  oause  the  fine  .ore  to 
feed  downward  more  rapidly  by  a  jarring  machine  worked  by 
power  to  produce  a  slight  Jarring  of  the  foundation  of  the 

An  improvement  in  concentrating  iron  ores  is  to 
crush  and  separate  witli  the  magnetic  separator  in  the  usual 
manner  setting  the  separator  so  it  will  give  a  very  perfect 
concentrate  but  with  considerable  loss  of  iron  in  the  tail¬ 
ings,  thun  running  the  whole  of  the  tailings  through  a  more  ' 
powerful  magnetic  separator  to  draw  every  part  iol  e  of  mag¬ 
netic  material  from  the  same,  then  running  the'  concentrate 
(which  is  not  very  high  in  iron  on  account  of  small  magnetic 
particles  sticking  to  large  pieces  of  gangue)  between  rolls 
to  bring  it  to  a  fine  condition  and  then  running  the  whole 
through  another  magnetic,  concentrator  similar  to  the  one 


another  good  substance  for  shis  purpose. 

In  batteries  whore  strong  alkalis  are  used  with  glasd 
Jars  the  addition  of  the  soda  produces  so  much  heat  that  it 
nearly  always  cracks  the  jar;  to  obviate  this  1  cast  the 
soda  while  molten  in  sticks  and  then  dip  the  same  in  molten 
paraffin  e.  Thi  s  preserves  them  from  mo  is  tore  and  when  used 
the  paraffine  may  bo  scraped  off  in  several  places  exposing 
a  small  portion  of  the  total  surface  ;  the  heat  producod  ow¬ 
ing  to  slow  solution  in  the  water  prevents  the  glass  from 

A  cheap  hard  soap  formed  from  thu  cheaper  soap  stocks 
combined  with  lime  or •  soda  or  alumina  oxides  to  form  a  hard 
but  easily  fusible  material  combined  with,  crude  ozocerite  or 
paraffine,  the  la t  tc;r  to  p  r event  action  of  moisture  moulding 
shells  of  same  and  veneering  surface  with  thomore  expensive 
record  material. 

die  int umal  part  of  the  moulded  phonogram  blank 
may  be  made  smooth  and  not  liable  to  cause  wax  chips  to 
cling  by  shellacing  the  sane  or  ooatxng  with  collodion  or 
gum  bul  at  a.  . 

j  Figure  48  is  a  wire  basket  over  the  outside  of  which 

is  stretched  fine  linen  , the  whole  immersed  in . the  mol  ten 
pot  of  material  which  filters  through  and  dipped  out  . 

Figure  40  shows  un  elec  trio  brako  for  railway  trains 
especially  freight  trains.  Hie,  following  is  the  systepi- 
In  each  caboose  I  place  say  twelve  small  motors  weighing 
say  50  pounds  each  and  each  easily  curried  by  one  man  also 
as  many  whools  which  are  split  and- have  teeth  on  their  po- 


ripherios  over  which  a  linked  chain  runs;  on  making  up  a 
train  of  say  thirty  cars-  the  yard  hands  or  brakoman  seloot\T 
from  the  thirty  oars  Ih  whi  di  have  straight  brA^fi  rigging; 
below  the  ordinary  hand  wheel  he  puts  the  split  wheel  and 
olanp8  .i  t  to  the  brake  rod  by  nuts  and  wrench  ;  this  is  done-' 
quickly;  he  then  brings  from  the  caboose  the  1  a  motors  ,  ad-  • 
justs  them  to  and  connects  thus  with  the  brake  rod  by  a 
linked  chain;  two  grappling  ropes  connected  to  the  edge  of 
the  top  of  the  car  in  connection  with  a  forked  rod  attached 
to  the  motor  and  coming  in  contact  with  the  break  rod  serves 
to  hold  the  motor  in  position;  two  double  wire  insulated 
ropes  are  passed  over  the  top  of  the  ears, the  end  being  in 
the  caboose  and  tho  other  ends  free  or  passed  to  the  loco¬ 
motive;  a  dynamo  run  by  a  small'  engine  and  boiler  on  the 
caboose  furnishes  current*  When  it  is  desired  to  brake?  tho 
train  the  field  is  energised  in  one  direction,  Soo  Figure  30 
which  is  always  the  same-  on  throwing  the  switch  X  to  one 
side  the  current  is  sent  to  the  anna  tu  res  <?f/4ll  tho  motors 
in ‘one  direction  and  they  rotate  say  to  the  right, 'on  throw¬ 
ing  the  switch  to  the  opposite  side,  the  direction  of  the  cur¬ 
rent  and  motor  is  reversed^ by  means  of  a  worm  wheel  H  Figure 
49  and  woven  «i,  the  chain  gives  rotation  to  tho  brake  rod 

in  one  direction  and  the  reverse  direction  when  the  motor 
rotates  in  the  opposite  direction,;  e  is  the  split  wheel, d 
tho  chain.f  the  ordinary  brake  rod  platform, K  K*  the  grap¬ 
pling  ropes  provided  with  tightening  device  on  motor,g  is 
the  forked  rod  which  is  adjustable;  a  similar  dynamo  and  J 
engine  may  bo  on  the  ongine  so  the  brakes  can  be  controlled 
at  both  ends,  'tho  advantage  of  this  system  is  that  when  tho  ' 
train  reaches  the  end  of  the  journey  all  can  be  replaced 

ware  compelled  to  make 

tap  rovomont  in  the  kineto 
X'  /;lass  covered  with  the 
A  A*  thu  object  to  be 
P  is  a  break  wheel  which 
induction  coil  £  with 
the  li/';ht  of  the  spark 
k  wheel  breaks  ttro  so 
breaks  pur  second  allow-' 
mder  for  each  j>hotor;rapi 
or  and  hi/^i  actinic  powoi 
ff  and  on  the  lenses  fron 
is  unnecessary  .At  oven 
it  do  Jlh  i  to  intervals  anc 
•’  continuous  movement 
die  photograph; of  course 
ire  light  beam  or  sun;— 
nit  rolled  positively  by 
Us  instead  of  continuous 
o  topjraphod  and  the  use 
self  is  intermitted.  • 

f  reproducing  the  pic- 
s  instead  of  boim  look- 

glass  cylinder  spark  point! 

trolled  by  the  break  wk-cl 

the  spark  being  given 
is  exactly  opposite  a 

at  the  exact  moment 
hole  lend  in'g  tb  the 

At' res  fj.'5  to  SO  are  magnet! o  iron  oro  separators; 
8»  conveys  by  rubber  belt  to  magne tic,  wheel  from  oro  hoppei 
and  delivers  under  water.  r.’i gu  ro  ;yt  jth0  hopjier  delivers 
"'oro  to  rubber  belt  mo  ing  tinder  water 'and  convoys  a  thin  • 
layer  of  oro  tin  dor  th  o  revolving  magnet  yhich  lifts  out  map 
netic  particles  and  delivers  the  same  outside  of  tank;  Fig¬ 
ure  54$  is  double  rotating  msi"«rio  ts  '  wh i ch'  alter',  th  o  trajocto 
ry  of  the  magnetic  particles  andVcan  be  wo  rk  od  'clo  s o  to 
stream  any  magnetic  pa  rti el  os  sticking  to  tho  m applet  being 
scraped  Off-  firu  re  5)5  ore  delivered  to  tank ^  ro  id  ting  mag¬ 
net  has  its  magnetism  intermittent  So  small  clinging  mag¬ 
netic  particles  disengaged  by  causing  many  rearrangements 
of  the  who!  e  of  the  particles  in  contact  at  every  variation 
of  the  magnetism  thus  enabling  nun  magnetic  particles  by 
friction  of  the  water  and  "gravi  tation  to  be  worked  out,  the 
variation  of  magnetism  not  being  sufficient  to  permit  mag¬ 
netic  particles  from  getting  any  considerable  distance  from 
contact  attraction. 

figure  bo  shows  ore  dropping  down  a  partitioned 
tank  to  ro luting  magnets  made  wutsr  tight  ,  the  magnetic  par¬ 
ticles  be  in/;  lifted  with  some  gangue  to  the  bottom  magpot 
and  held  there  until  immediately  under  the  noxt  ma-net  at 
which  point  a  commutator  within  the  magnet  cuts  off  the  sec¬ 

tion  of  the  drum  and  the -magnetic 

!  ;:0  - 

less  gangu  o  1-S  lifted  to  the  Hnd  magnet  and  so  on  being 
scraped  off  from  tho  smaller  oxjorior  lan/jit t. 

Figure  »7  sViowe  a  single  axs  ore! 

FifSi  ro  *58  shows  tho  dry  separator  with  'a  /\  shaped 
board  over  tit  e  slit  and  full  of  holes  so  as  to  produce  un¬ 
even  pressure  of  ore  on  th  o  slit  and  take  off  tho  grout 
pressure  duo  to  the  wliole  of  tile  ore  wl.i’ch  $  and  s  to  f  o  nn 
arches  of  particles  over  tho  slit  and  tints  prevent  easy  run¬ 
ning. 'Lho  slit  in  tiiis  device  is  a  rotating  one;  . 

Figure  S0  sliows  a  dovioo  for  do  in/;  uway  with  tho 
slit,  by  deli  ve  r  in/;  the  o  ro  in  a  thin  flat  stream  sized  to 
thickness  by  a  scraper  over  tho  belt  thu  spued  of  tile  bolt 
being  k  op  t  very  constant.  The  m  a  //not  alters  tho  trajectory 
of  the  magnetic  particles  in  -  the  usual-  way. 

For  preventing  tiie  great  contraction  of  the  oamauba 
or  palm  wax  family  by  adding  a  stoarate-pf  a-rautal  preferably 
stearate  of  aluminum  making  a  more  amorphous  compound  when 
cooked  for  sometime  and  one  which  has  nearly  tlio  ordinary 
contraction  of  waxes;  to  this  compound  beeswax,  paraffine, 
ceresin  arid  other  softer  waxes  or  materials  can  be  added  to 
give  it  cohesion  and  prevent  chipping.-  Anotbeynothod  is  -- 
to  act  upon  beeswax  by  alumina  to  fora  creotate  of  alumina 
by  adding  acetate  of  alumina  to  molten  beeswax;  the  resul¬ 
tant  compound  being  combined  with  carnauba  or  the  prop  or  ;  ■ 
proportions  being  put  together, say  400  carnauba  500  booswax, 
the  deoomposible  alumina  salt  can  be  added  until  the  proper - 
consistency  is  reached  which  is  about  30  parts  of  acetate 
alumina.  'Che  oerotio  acid  of  the  beeswax  and  probably  tho'  "  ' 


oarnauba  decomposes  tho  alumina  sail  comb.inos  with  the  alum, 
ina  and  sets  free  acetic  acid  winch  is  driven  off  by  .tho 
heat. Acotu tes  of  the  other  metals  cun  be  used  such  as  mag¬ 
nesia  or  sine  but  they  arc  not  so  oasily  worked  and  do  not 
give  so  p;ood  a  combination;  all  amorphous  stearates,  cero- 
tates  and  other  fatty  acids  combined  with  motet  Is,  serve  a  '■ 
very  useful  purpose  in  produ cing  phonographic  cylinders  ’whort-- 
used  in  conjunction  with  waxes  and  othur  materials  wliioh  arc 
crystalino  or  seal  crystaline;  the  salts  tend  to  prevent  con¬ 
traction  and  roughness  duo  to  erystalizawon.  A  cylinder  for 
indenting  without  removal  of  mate1  rial  can  be  made  by  using 
50  parts  camphor  and  50  parts  of  &  wax  or  other  mat;  rial,’ 
when  turned  true  and  allowed  to  stand  the  camphor  volatil¬ 
izes  and  loaves  a  /Pu- re  waxy  surface  which  is  easily  flatten¬ 
ed  down  by  the  sound  waves  and  point-  - 

1  am  also  exp orimunt lng  with  shells  of  sulphur  cast 
by  pouring^  su  lphur  approaches  more  rioarly  the  expansion 
point  of  ordinary  waxes  and  soaps  than  any  other  substance 
equally  stronR  ,hurd  .mutjldablo  and  cheap. She  shells  are  dip¬ 
ped  in  the  molten  recording  material,  thus  putting  a  thin 
veneer  on  the  surft»ce;or  the  thin  shell  of  recording  mater¬ 
ial  may  be  made  by  heavily  coating  a  metallic  mandrel  with  ^ 
castor  oil  dipping  and  then  sXocpcxx  stripping  off  tho  shell  " 
and  pouring'  sulphur  inside  shell  when  over  a  mandrel  which- 
has  a  space  botween  it  and  tlie  shell  for  the  sulphur. 


'i  II,  S,  PATENT  0 

WASHINGTON,  d.  c„  -.De  o-.- •  20y.-viSS9;- •  - 
\sutject:  Phonographs.  ’r--  ’ 

T.  A..  Edison, 

Caro  Dyer  A  Seely, 

New  York  City, 


"  Please  find  below  a  communication  from  the  EXAMINER  in  oharge  of  the  application 

above  noted.  ' 


J Filed,  Deo.  16,1889  Jfo. 

Room  No.2HL— 

Commissioner  of  Paten  ts, 

I  Before  this  claim  can  be  duly  filed  applicant 

|  must  confine  the  description  and  drawings  to  a  single  subject  of 
i  invention. 



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'  T.  { _ X.jQ 

The  petition  of  Thomas  Alva  Edison,  a  citizen  of 
the  Uni  tod  States,  residin'?  at  J.l  swell, yn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex, and  State  of.  Now  Jersey,  represents: 

Th at  he  has  made  certain  improvements  in  phonographs, 
and  that  he  is  now  engaged  in  making  experiments  for  the 
purpose  of  perfecting  the  same,,  preparatory  to  applying 
for  letters  patent  therefor.  Me  therefore  prays  that  the  sulv 
joined  description  of  his  invention  may  he  filed  as  a  caveat 
in  the  confidential  archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 


Ho  it  known  that  I,  Thomas  Alva  Edison ,  a  citizen 
of  the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex,  and  State  of  New  .Jersey,  having  invented 
Improvements  in  Phonographs,  end  desiring  further  to  mature 
the  same,  file  this  my  caveat  thorofor,  and  pray  protection 
of  my  right  until  I  shall  have  matured  my  invention. 

'ihe  following  is  a  description  of  my  nev/ly-in vontnd 
improvement s\in  Phonographs;  which  is  as  full,  clear,  and 
exact  as  I  am  able  at  this  time  to  give, reference  being  had 
to  the  drawing  hereto  annexed. 

Figure  1  shows  a  tromp  with  air  ball  to  throw  out 
the  rubber agn  to  lift  the  spectacle  of  the  phonograph 

ffiguro  34  shows  the  tromp  applied  to  the  regular 
raising  lever  . 

Figure  35,  a  mechanical  device  for  doing  sane  thing. 

Figure  36,  a  friction  governor  which  has  the  all 
important  peculiarity, that  one  of  the  friction  surfaces  is 
loose  like  a  brake  shoe, hence  is  seated  perfectly  in  the 
act  of  governing  which  is  important  in  the  phonograph  to 
prevent  jerky  regulation. 

Figure  37  shows  the  shifting  talking  device  on  pho¬ 
nograph, the  same  diaphragm  serving  to  record  and  reproduce. 
The  lever  for  adjusting  the  reproduction  is  springy  and  is 
sprung  over  into  th9  groove  in  end  of  adjusting  screw. 


Figure  38  shov/s  spectacle  with  single  diaphragm  for 
recording  and  reproducing, having  shifting  devices  not  shown 
provided  with  a  determining  pendulum, the  whole  being  hinged 
on  spoctaclo  arm, and  a  tightening  screw  to  hold  in  p° si tion 
aft  or  pendulum  has  determined  position;  this  allows  any 
thickness  of  cylinder  being  used- 

Figure  39  shows  an  air  cushion  or  dash  pot  to  pre¬ 
vent  breaking  mechanism  on  spectaclo  arm  when  carelessly 

Figure  40  shows  a  mandrel  with  same  diameter  and. 
not  taper.  This  is  dipped  in  the  recording  material  and  a 
sholl  is  formed  by  the  chilling  effect  of  the  mandrel ;  a 
harder  shell, not  taper  outside, but  taper  inside  is  previous¬ 
ly  prepared  and  while  the  dipped  shell  is  warm  and  expanded 
it  is  shovod  over  the  prepared  shell  and  contracts  on  it. 

The  expansion  coefficient  of  the  shells  are  the  same. 

Figure  41  shows  such  a  compound  phonogram  blank. 

The  inner  sholl  has  groat  strength  and  is  cheaper  and  may 
bo  used  again- 

Figiu’e  49  shows  a  single  diaphragm  with  both  record¬ 
ing  and  reproducing  points  thereon  with  the  usual  weight, but 
made  adjustable  by  a  ball  on  a  lover  held  by  friction. 

Figure  50  shows  the  recorder  and  reproducer  on  the 

3amo  lever;  by  moving  the  diaphragm  apparatus  in  direction 

of  arrow  the  recording  point  is  carried  away  from  tho  center 

or  highest  part  of  cylinder  and  reproducing  ball  takes  its 
place, -hence  one  can  either  record  or  reproduce  by  moving 
the  lever  and  diaphragm  frem  or  towards  the  cylinder. 


Figure  51  shows  the  recorder  ball  cut  in  half  and 
cupped  out  so  that  if  placed  in  the  position  shown  it  acts 
as  a  recording  tool, but  if  the  same  ig  given  a  half  .revolu¬ 
tion  it  acts  as  a  reproducer  without  cutting  the  record. 

Figure  53  shows  an  automatic  tightening  put  on  the 
swinging  arm  of  the  phonograph. 

figure  58  shews  the  raising  lever  on  the  new  phono¬ 

figure  5  4  shows  a  double  recording  and  reproducing 
devicejwhen  recording  the  ball  lover  is  thrown  in  position 
shown  by  dotted  lines, but  when  reproducing  is  throve  forward 
in  the  cup  of  the  recorder. 

Figure  55  shows  swinging  am  on  diaphragm  lever 
whereby  either  recorder  or  reproducer  can  bo  thrown  into 

Figure  55  is  the  srune  as  figure  50. 

Figure  57  shows  recorder  and  reproducer  points  on 
one  levor  and  diaphragm  holder  pivoted  so  as  to  swing  bring, 
ing  tho  recorder  or  reproducer  in  contact  with  the  cylinder 
as  case  may  be. 

Figures  58  and  59  show  the  single  diaphragm  wi  th 
lever  and  double  points. 

Figure  69  shows  chip  box  on  turning  off  tool  on 
tho  diaphragn  arm. 


Figure  (35  <how  a  phonograph  diap'toagm  apparatus  con¬ 
nected  to  lover  through  an  oil  bath  to  permit  of  thick  or 
thin  cylinders  being  used  without  adjustment. 

Figure  (id  shows  connection  through  msgnntisn. 

Figure  <37, a  sticking  coil. 

Figure  <J8,a  mailing  bo::  for  phonograms. 

Figure  71  shows  a  multiplying  device  for  phonographs; 
200  thread  screws  are  difficult  to  make, hut  50  thread  aro 
easily  made  , -lienee  by  using  a  50  thread  to  incli  shaft  and 
rotating  it  4  times  slower  than  phonogram  we  get  200  threads 
to  inch  on  its  surface;  but  this  must  be  positive  driven 
and  gears  make  irregularity  and  belts  si  ip,  hence  I  use  a  per¬ 
forated  driving  barii  and  insure  positiveness  by  pine  oh  the 
wheels  entering  the  holes. 

Figures  33  and  2  represent  a  form  of  friction  gear¬ 
ing  especially  adapted  to  that  form  of  electric  street  car 
such  as  the  Sprague  motor. The  friction  wheel  replaces  a 
gear  wheel,  and  is  mounted  on  a  lever  so  as  to  be  removable, 
thus  allowing  the  motor  to  be  running  at  full  speed  when 
the  car  is  started.  The  wheel  may  be  of  metal , raw) die, leath¬ 
er, celluloid,  lead,  babbit,  copper-  The  dynamo  is  connected 
to  it  by  a 
A  1 

Figure  8  shows  a  street  Railway  System  with  Flee trie 

oose^elt  as  in  Figu  ro  3  mjy  al  so  be  Used. 


Bars  provided  with  Condon  sore  to  prevent  ran  id  charCos  of 
current-  from  affecting  tel ephonos  and  also  ^protection 
from  lightning. 

,?iftWi’o  9  shows  Largo  magi  at  with  amain  re  on  placed 
in  main  lino  through  which  all  the  cars  must  got  their  euiu 
ront.  ‘lli s. g  servos  to  weaken  tho  current  at  the  moment  of 
starting  the  cars  and  thus  save  the  armature  and  fi old* The' 
size  of  field  is  such  that  it  is  only  saturated  when  all  thg 
oars  are  may  bo  placed  at  the  station  or  a 
number  may  be  placed  along  the  lino  in  the  same  and  at  in¬ 
tervals  so  all  current  going  to  any  car  must  pass  through 
tho  magiets. 

figure  99  shows  the  field  mogiet  of  a  street  oar 
motor  ift  w.hich  the  v.'ire  is  wound  wholly  on  bobbins  of  hard 
rubber  or  other  instil  at  ing  material  which  are  slipped  over 
the  corns, tho  object  being  to  prevent  piercing  when  the 
field  is  broken. 

figure  70  shows  tho  method  of  connecting  street 
car  truck  rails  together  by  bolt  nuts  end  copper  strips, tho 
rail  being  tinned  as  also  the  copper  strips-  I  also  propose 
to  electrically  weld  the  iron  to  tho  cepper. 

figure  4  shows  dovice  for  translating  alternating 
currents  into  currents  all  in  one  direction  which  serve  to 

Ct aasuU*/* 

work  a  ooritinuou^motor.  A  i<*>  tho  iron  go  re  of  tho  trano- 
fonner,  B  the  high  volt  coil  worked  by  an  alternating  machine 
0  a  small  coil  used  to  work  tho  polarized  relay  F.  D  &  fi  are 
coils  w.hich  are  the  low  volt  coils.  A  reversing  device  is 
connected  to  the  relay  and  reverses  the  coil  just  at  the 


moment  when  there  is  a  change  of  sign  so  the  spark  on  the 
points  will  bo  very  small. 

Figure  5  shows  two  transformers,  A  being  connected 
to  the  supply  main  all  the  time  and  provided  with  a  helix 
and  sucking  coil  without  iron  so  that  when  the  A  transformer 
becomes  loaded  the  lover  will  be  drawn  up  and  the  transform¬ 
er  E  thrown  in  circuit. 

Figure  <3  allows  the  stwio  thing  but  with  both  high 
and  low  coils  thrown  in  or  out  according  to  the  supply -Shis 
device  saves  the  loss  during  the  hours  when  but  little  if 
any  light  is  used. 

Figure  7  is  an  ordinary  Siemens  type  of  .Dynamo  wound 
in  two  sections  and  provided  with  4  contact  segments,  the 
contacts  being  made  at  tho  point  of  change  of  sign. 

Figure  10  is  device  for  changing  alternating  currents 
into  currents  of  one  direction. 

dingle  coil  x  is  high  tension  ooilj’a  small  coil 
works  the  polarized  relay-  two  large  wire  coils  wound  in  op¬ 
posite  directions  have  their  cross  wire  connected  to  motor 
and  their  ends  to  the  relay  points, the  lever  of  which  con¬ 
nects  to  motor.  The  coils  by  action  of  relay  are  thrown  out 
in  uccording  to  sign  of  current  and  at  the  moment  when  there 
is  scarcely  any  current  ,the  position  of  the  relay  coil  tim¬ 
ing  the  point  of  ehango. 

Figure  11  shows  the  relay  coil  just  over  the  double 

coils . 

Figure  12  is  same  as  10  but  currents  are  received 
± rom  distant  stations  in  same  direction  but  going  through 
two  coils  produce  same  effect  as  alternations.  If  a  short 
circuit  occurs  on  either  circtiit  the  fields  of  either  A  or 
B  are  short  circuited  and  it  becomes  a  motor  reducing  tho 
Volts  from  200  to  100- 

Figure  14  shows  this  principle  arranged  for  three 

The  object  of  dividing  A  B  into  two  is  to  obviate 
the  effect  only  of  short  circuits  should  they  ever  occur 
otherwise  a  single  dynamo  could  bo  usod;  both  A  B  and  C  be¬ 
ing  regulatcablo  the  electric  motive  force  could  be  kept 

-7  - 

exact  for  the  lamps-  short  circuiting  doss  not  effect  the 
throe-wire  system  whereas  in  every  variation  of  this  prin¬ 
ciple  devices  must  be  used  to  obviate  the  results  which 
cranes  from  short  circuiting  outside  tho  station  . 

Figure  13  shows  a  system  of  elect, ric  light  lug  in 
which  there  is  unlike  tho  throe  wire  system  no  two  sources 
of  electromotive  force, tho  two  electromotive  forces  being 
connected  in  mult ip lo  instead  of  series  as  in  tho  three  wire 
system; in  this  system, tho  neutral  wire  connects  between 
the  dynamos  connected  in  multiple  instead  of  connecting  be¬ 
tween  the  two  dynamos  in  series  as  in  the  3  wire  systom-tho 
dynamos  A  &  3  form  a  source  of  energy  of  200  volts  with 
no  contral  wire  botwocn  thorn;  0  is  connected  to  the  main  in 
same  direction  as  A  B.The  field  coils  of  A  &  13  are  con  - 
nocted  across  tho  200  volt  circuit  0  has  100  volts.  If  all 
laurps  are  off  of  2,  0  furnishes  current.  If  all  off  of  1 
A  &  B  furnishes  the  current.  The  200  volts  am  mot  by  coun¬ 
ter-pressure  of  100  volts  at  0,  leaving  but  100  volts, C  being 
run  as  a  motor  giving  its  power  back  to  the  steam  source  ° 
witnout  loss.  If  a  short  circuit  occurs  on  either  circuit 
the  fields  of  either  A  or  B  are  short  circuited  and  it  bow 
comes  a. motor  reducing  the  volts  from  200  to  100- 

Figure  15  shows  the  same  system  with  200  volt  dynamo 
A  and  100  volt  dynamo  O.half  of  tho  field  of  A  being  short 
circuited  when  a  cross  occurs  on  the  line. 

Figure  16  shows  double  iron  fields. Tho  short  circuit¬ 
ing  of  half  the  wire  not  only  weakens  the  field  by  removing 
the  current  but  tho  iron  on  which  the  coil  is, servos  as  a 
magnetic  shunt  and  quickly  reduces  electro-motive  foroe  of 

Figure  17  shows  tho  double  fields, the  current  being 
obtained  from  an  exciting  dynamo. 

Figure  13  shows  plain  system  without  provision  for 
short  circuiting. 

Figure  19  shows  system  connected  to  mains  by  feed¬ 
ers - 

Figure  20  shows  this  system, applied  to  3  circuits. 

Figure  21  shows  a  system  whereby  switch  Dynamo  can 
be  thrown  from  one  side  of  split  to  the  other. 

Figure  22 

Figure  23  shows  series  coils  on  field  of  high  ten¬ 
sion  dynamo  opposed  to  regulur  current, energizing 'the  field. 

Figure  24  shows  200  volt  dynamo  with  double  field 
coils  and  two  rolsys^on  short  circuit  occurring  on  ono  or 
other  branch, rol ay  closes  on  opposite  branch  by  increase 
of  voltage  or  if  points  are  under  lever  relay  opens  and 
thus  throv/s  in  big  resistance  in  $  of  the  field  or  opens  it 
altogether  or  throws  in  a  counter  current  coil  and  reduces 
volts  from  200  to  100. 

Figure  23  shows  variation  of  previously  described 
system  of  directly  short  circuiting  part  of  field  on  200 
volt  dyna'no. 

Figure  20  shows  a  3  circuit  arrangement  same  as  71 g- 

ure  24. 

Figure  27  shows  practically  same  thing  as  24- sepa¬ 
rata  exciter  being  used  and  relays  are  differential. 

Figure  22  shows  sane  as  27  without  separate  exciter. 

Figures  29  &  20  show  systems. 

Figure  31  shows  a  system  with  feeders  .indicators 


Figure  32  shows  a  system 

Figure  42  is  a  magnetic  separator. 

Figures  43  and  44  also  magnetic  separators. 

Figure  43  is  device  for  utilizing  waste  chimney  heat 
of  boilers  to  heat  the  air  forced  under  the  grate  by  a  blow- 
er.  '  ■  ,  • 

^Lguro  40  is  a  Jcinetoecopa, The  sensitive  film  is  in 
t?T-3  form  of  a  long  band  parsing  from  one  reel  to  another  in 
fron+  of  a  square  slit  as  in  figure  47; on  each  side  of  the 
bond  am  rows  of  hoi  os  exactly  opposite  each  other  and  into 
Y/hioh  doublo  toothed  wheels  pass  on  in  the  wheatstone  auto¬ 
matic  telegraph  instrument.  This  ensures  a  positive  motion 
of  ths  band;  The  film  being  transparent, the  hoyden  jar 
spark  illuminates  back  and  by  moans  of  a  lens  the  image  is 
projected  on  a  so  re  mi.  Instead  of  a  leydon  spark  a  coitinu- 
ous  light  with  revolving  shutter  may  bousnd.  the  operation 
of  photographing  is  as  follows-  in  front  of  the  apparatus 
v/hore  the  film  is  exposed  the  mi crophoto graphic  apparatus  isN 
placed.  A  moto r,p  ref erably  an  electric  motor,  drives  a 
shaft  at  great  velocity; on  tliis  shaft  is  a  slnovo  carrying 
double  toothed  wheals  engaging  in  the  holes  of  the  band  of 
photo  film. The  coinoction  between  this  slaive  and  shaft  is  a 
friction  one; on  the  sleeve  is  a  release  escgpsnent  with  fo ik 
connected  to  the  tongue  of  a  polarised  relay. This  ool arissod 
relay  is  reciprocated  by  moans  of  a  break  wheel  alternating 
currents  through  it  or  by  an  alternating  snail  dynamo.  The 
time  is  so  arranged  with  those  currents  that  the  band  is  ad¬ 
vanced  one  step  for  a  photograph  10  times  in  one  snooid  ,+Jio 
escapement  working  of  courso  10  times  in' a  second  but  of  this 

_J L_  .  o  1 

1  0  of  second,  1  Oths  of  tho  1  0  tlio  band  is  still  with 
TO  of  the  1  0  of  a  second  The  band  is  moving  .In  other 
words: If  there  wore  but  one  photograph  to' be  Wren  in  10 
seconds  the  band,  would  bo  shifted  in  1  second  and  stand 
still  o  seconds, and  this  proportion  holds  good  up  to  any 


number  of  photographs  per  second  until  the  mechanism  fails 
to  act,  by  thus  causing  the  band  to  be  in  a  state  of  rest 
9/10  of  the  time  yet  taking  10  photographic  images  per  sec¬ 
ond  most  perfect  results  are  obtained  and  the  groat  necessi¬ 
ty  of  a  3hutter  is  modified.  The  break  wheel  which  controls 
the  polarized  relay  may  bo  connected  to  the  scrovr  shaft  of 
the  phonograph, honce  there  will  be  a  positive  connection 
and  all  the  movements  of  a  person  photographed  will  be  exact¬ 
ly  coincident  with  any  sounds  made  by  hirn- 

Piguro  48  gives  rough  idea  of  positive  feed  mechan¬ 
ism;  of  course  this  principle  can  bo  applied  to  cylinders  ■ 
covered  with  the  photo  material  as  well  as  in  bands-V/hen  a 
leyden  spark  is  used  the  break  wheel  is  arranged  that  it 
takes  place  while  band  is  in  state  of  rcst,9r  if  shutter 
used  reciprocating  or  revolving  it  is  to  be  released  by 
the  samo  devices  that  release  and  move  the  hand  and  the 
shutter  so  devised  that  light  only  passes  to  the  imago  while 
prelecting  it  on  the  3croon  when  in  a  state  of  rest. 

'  Pigure  61  s hows  a  wire  rope  transmission  brake  for 

freight  trains ;a  worm  wheel  is  removably  connected  to  the 
regular  brake  wheel;  into  .this  meshes  a  worm  driven  by  a 

pulley  and  wire  ropo-  the  frame  holding  prill ey  and  worm  be¬ 

ing  removably  connected  to  the  walk  on  the  car  or  otherwise, 
say  10  or  15  wheels  are  connected  up. The  wire  rope  passes 
over  all  the  pulley  wheels  to  a  main  pulley  on  the  caboose 
then  by  a  wire  rope  to  engine  to  winder  pulley  connected  to 

the  wheel  or ‘separate  ongineja  friction  wheel  in  caboose 
may  also  work  the  rope. The  tight  side  is  the  one  that  is  not 
connected  to  the  Brake  pulleys, honce  on  braking  the  train 
the  all  important  object  is  gained  of  applying  the  brakes 
first  to  the  last  ears j gradually  putting  them  on  towards 
the  engine  which  is  due  to  the  stack. The  worm  wheel  or 


worra  are  connect ad  to  brake  through  friction  which  being 
adjustabl o  serves  always  to  put  samp  degree  braking  power 
on  > 

pigur9  153  a) i owe  side  view; 

pigure  <53  allows  ar  brako  moved  step  by  step 
with  an  air  tromp  pulsation, being  sent  over  flexible  pipe 
from  engine;  a  secondary  small  tube  or  flexible  pipe  v/oiks 
ft  small  releasing  tromp.  Glycerine  or  water  end  glyoorino  or 
light  oil,  say  paraffine  oil  ,oould  boused  instead  of  air*<t 
p  is  ton  in  largo  chamber  on  engine  worked  up  and  do«n  gi v in g 
necessary  pul sations. 

figure  (54  shows  a  water  motor  -steam  could  lie  ir«pd. 

,i'or  detemining  the  position  of  tho  sun  and  horizon 
at  sea  use  a  kodak  instantaneous  photograph  apparatus  and 
afterwards  measure  the  distance  on  tlie  photograph; this  would 
render  artificial  horizons  unnecessary  and  probably  the  pho- 
to  by  proper  glasses  for  screening  could  get  position  oven 
in  a  fog-  To  detect  icebergs  at  soa  send  a  seven  foot  Si>*$ 
Edison  torpedo  ahead  of  ship  with  reels  of  wire  on  ship  !?.n 
feet  apart  and  run  torpedo  motor  faster  than  ship, both 

'ires  being  taut, rudder 

way, one  wire  taut, other  loose, hence  ruddi 

bringing  straight  . 

center  of  torpedo  veers  cither 
thrown  around 

Stats  of 
County  of 

Thomas  Alva  Edison  being  duly  sworn  deposes  and 
says;  that  ho  is  a  citizen  of  tho  United  Statos  and  a  rosi- 
4  ait  of  hlgv/gllyn  Park  ,in  tho  County  of  Ess  ox,  and  Stato  of 
Mov;  Jorsoy,  and  that  hg  verily  boliovos  himself  to  be  tho 
original  and  first  inventor  of  the  improvements  set  forth 

p  b  n  n  o  w. 

The  petition  of  Thomas  Alva  Edison,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  Essex,  and  State  of  Nevr  Jersey  ,  represents: 

That  Pie  has  made  certain  improvement s  in  phonographs, 
and  that  he  is  now  engaged  in  making  experiments  for  trie 
purpose  of  perfecting  tho  same,  preparatory  to  applying 
for  letters  patent  therefor.  Ho  therefore  prays  that  the 
subjoined  description  of  his  invention  may  bo  filed  as  a 
caveat  in  the  confidentiEil  archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 


Be  it  known  that  1,  Thomas  Alva  Edison,  a  citizen 
of  the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the 
County  of  Essex,  and  "tate  of  Mew  Jersey,  having  invented 
Improvements  in  Phonographs,  and  desiring  further  to  mature 
the  same,  file  this  my  caveat  there for, and  pray  protection 
of  my  right  until  I  shall  have  matured  my  invention  . 

The  following  is  a  description  of  my  newly-invented 
Improvements  in  Phonographs,  which  is  as  full,  clear, and 
exact  as  I  am  able  at  this  time  to  give, reference  being  had 
to  the  drawing  hereto  annexed. 

The. fine  feed  screw  used  on  the  phonograph  is  lia-  ' 
ble  to  be  injured  by  dropping  various  things  on  it  ;  also, 
if  it  is  attempted  to  make  the  screw  a  very  fine  one  so  as 
to  allow  of  a  great  many  words  being  put  on  one  cylinder  the 
steel  nut  which  is  used  wears  out  very  quickly. ' 

Figure  1  shows  the  new  method  of  arranging  the  trav¬ 
elling  nut  and  guard,  A  being  the  back  rod  on  which  swings 
the  square  piece  A'  secured  to  a  sleeve.  The  springy  arm  B 
carries  the  nut  which  strikes  the  main  screw  d,  on  the  side. 

_e  i3  the  guard  which  may  be  cast  as  a  part  of  the  base  of 
the  phonograph. 

Figure-  2  shows  the  improved  nut.  It  consists  of  a 
number  of  shoots  of  copper  separated  by  similar  sheets  set 
away  from  the  pieces  which  engage  in  the  thread.  The  width 
of  both  pieces  of  copper  is  oqiial  to  the  width  of  the  thread 
or  thereabouts.  The  work  is  mostly  done  on  the  ends  of  the 

sheet  copper.  Copper  being  soft  doc-s  not  wear  the  expen- 

sive  main  shaft,  imd  while  the  copper  wears  away  fast  er  than 
the  steal  nut  previously  used  it  lasts  many  times  longer 
as  provision  is  made  for  a  considerable  part  of  the  coppor 
for  wearing.  The  whole  of  the  copper  sheets  are  soldered 
together  at  the  upper  end  so  when  the  loaves  got  worn  down 
close  to  the  separating  shoots  it  can  be  taken  up  and  a 
new  one  put  in  in  a  few  womonts.  There-  is  an  elasticity 
about  it  which  the  solid  nut  did  not  possess. 

Figure  3  shows  a  device  whereby  the  present  phono¬ 
graph  can  be  arranged  that  cylinders  several  times  thicker 
than  those  which  can  be  used  at  present  may  be  used  or  a 
number  of  sizes  can  bo  used  varying  from  to  inches  in  diam¬ 
eter  down  to  one  of  only  1/3  an  inch  .  It  is  very  important 
that  the  phonograph  should  bo  arranged  so  that  the  present 
two  inch  size  may  be  used  which  is  the  most  convenient  size 
for  office  work  and  at  the  same  time  permit  of  a  very  small 
cylinder  being  used  so  that  it  may  be  sent  by  mail  without 
having  much  weight  and  permitting  the  employment  of  safety 
carrying  boxes  which  are  almost  prohibitary  with  the  larger 
size  cylinders. The  arm  carrying  the  reZo order  swings  on  the 
back  rod  in  the  usual  manner.  The  limit  of  the  recording 
level*  of  the  diaphragm  will  permit  the  cylinder  to  be  turned 
down  1/iG  of  an  inch  when  it  will  cease  to  do  wark,reaehing 
its  limiting  stop-  If  now  the  lever  A  is  drawn  outwardly 
so  step  Ko . 3  comes  on  the  straight  edge, the  cylinder  can  be 
further  used  1/16  of  an  inch  and  so  on  until  it  reaches  the 
smallest  size  which  it  is  proposed  to  use, or  if  the  lever  A 
is  set  for  a  large  cylinder  and  it  is  desired  to  put  on  a  1 
mailing  cylinder, the  arm  A  ie  lowered  to  the  step  4  at  once 




after  the  small  cylinder  is  put  oh.  The  shaving  device  also 
is  secured  to  the  aim  in  such  a  manner  as  to  swing  on  its 
own  fulcrum  indeperCdeht  of  the  arm  so  that  the  knife  always 
is  shoved  towards  the  center  of  the  cylinder  no  matter  whoro 
the  diaphragm  arm  is. 

It  is  convenient  to  know  the  position  of  the  record¬ 
ing  devices  on  the  cylinder  when  operating  .  I  attain  this 
by  a  small  mirror  carried  by  the  diaphragm  arm. 

I  may  mention  that  the  travelling  nut  arm  when  using 
the  step  motion  stays  always  in  the  same  place,  the  arm  car¬ 
rying  the  diophraijn  bo  I*®  loosened  and  re  clamped  on  the 
sleeve  which  carries  both, every  Tiime  a  stop  is  taken  down¬ 

On  the  phonograph  motor  working  on  electrio  light 
circuits,  I  now  put  the  field  Voynet  and  armature  in  series 
and  put  in  a  fixed  resistance  according  to  the  volts  of  the 
circuit  on  which  it  is  used  and  to  get  rid  of  the  trouble¬ 
some  spark  on  the  governing  devices  I  have  substituted  the 
friction  shoe  governor  use-:  on  the  water  motor  phonograph-' 
Sometimes  ignorant  persons  turn  the  phonograph  motor  by 
hand  in  the  reverse  direction  to  which  it  is  intended  to  go 
destroying  in  many  cases  the  brushes  used-  I  have  obviatod 
this  defect  by  constructing  the  brushes  as  in  Pigure  4  the 
motor  can  be  turned  in  either  direction  without  danger  to 
the  brushes. 

Figure  5  shows  a  magnetic  differential  gear  for  mo¬ 
tors  on  railway  cars; instead  of  teeth  I  use  soft  Norway 
iron.  1  and  2  are  cones  connected  to  gear  wheels  9  and  10 
and  are  not  connected  to  the  axle  of  the  car  13.  11  and  12 

are  pinions  driven  by  motors  in  opposite  directions;  the  arm 
on  which  the  intermediate  wheels  3  and  4  are  connected  1g 
secured  permanently  to  the  axle.  She  wire  5  and  6  makes 
eav:h  wheel  a  powerful  magnet  having  a  very  short  magnetic 
circuit  -  honoe  it  produces  powerful  traction  between  the 
i’aoe  of  1  and  2  and  3  and  4  serving  the  place  of  teeth. Of 
course  3  and  4  might  be  provided  with  wire  as  well  but  it 
is  not  so  convenient  to  convey  the  current  to  them.  7  and  8 
servo  to  convey  the  current  to  the  wire-  The  wire  is  ei¬ 
ther  placed  on  the  armature  circuit  or  permanently  across 
the  main  circuit  in  multiple  or  in  series  or  in  the  field. 

It  may  by  resistance  boxes  be  increased  or  diminished  if  re¬ 
quired  so  ns  to  produce  powerful  traction  on  starting  the 
car  and  afterwards  weakened  for  economys  sake  /although  the 
energy  lost  is  very  small. 

When  the  speed  of  11  and  12  is  the  3ame  the  wheels 
3  and  4  merely  turn  and  give  no  mot  ior^to  tlio  axle  but  if 
the  speed  of  11  is  diminished  and  12  increased  by  strength¬ 
ening  the  field  of  the  motor  rotating  11  and  diminishing  the 
strength  of  the  field  of  the  motor  rotating  12, mot  ion  will 
be  given  the  axle  in  proportion  to  the  difference  of  speeds 
Figure  6  shows  the  same  device  put  on  the  pinion  , 
a  pinion  wheel  with  teeth  being  outside  of  the  smooth  cone 

the  use  of  stool  wire  ropes 
Figure  7  showa^instead  of  obtaining  traction  direct 

by  the  cone  wheels  >  and  the  large  cone  wheels  wound  like  a 
dynamo  bobbin  Paccenotti  style, the  wire  ropes  being  made  to 
hug  the  cone  in  the  yro  ves  by  magnetic  attraction  in  addi¬ 
tion  to  the  usual' traction  produced.  From  one  to  several 


ropes  may  be  used.  I  have  only  illustrated  one  half  of  the 

Figure  8  allows  a  method  of  using  rope  ,  driving 
differentially  and  obtaining  traction  without  a  multiplicity 
of  ropes  or  magnetism,  'fhe  idler  wheels  are  made  of  two  si¬ 
zes  and  the  rope  passes  several  times  around, the  pulleys 
producing  sufficient  traction. 

Figure  9  gives  a  side  view  of  the  device. 

Figure  10  shows  magnetic  spur  gears.  The  teeth  of 
main  wheel  and  pinion  being  powerfully  magnetized, a  train 
of  such  gearing  can  be  combined. 

In  the  devices  for  driving  cars  I  have  shown  two 
motors  and  by  varying  their  speeds  produce  motion  of  the 
car  axle  by  the  differential  gearing  ,one  noting  as  a  mo¬ 
tor  and  the  other  for  the  time  being  acting  as  a  dynamo.  In 
figure  11  I  use  a  single  motor  and  a  differential  gear  where¬ 
by  the  variation  of  one  of  the  elements  of  the  gearing  is 
brought  about  mechanically  by  tilting  the  double  intermed¬ 
iate  wheels  by  the  rack  and  pinion  to  positions  where  the 
left  hand  wheels  are  brought  nearer  the  center  of  the  large 
driven  wheel  while  the  right  hand  wheels  are  thrown  out  to¬ 
wards  the  circumference  of  the  right  hand  driven  wheel. Both 
of  tho  large  wheels  are  connected  to  the  shaft  of  the  motor 
and  rotate  with  it.  ‘Che  small  wheels  are  not  only  in  con¬ 
tact  with  tho  large  wheels  but  with  each  other.  Traction 
between  the  whole  of  the  devices  of  the  differential  driv¬ 
ing  mechanism  is  produced  by  hydraulic  pressure;the  right 
hand  wheel  unlike  the  left  hand  wheel  has  a  sliding  motion 



andwise  ;  a  plunder  A  of  Xa rge  area  secured  to  it  pnaeos  intc 
a  chamber  mado  by  the  piece  B  v/hich  is  secured  rigidly  to 
the  shaft;  two  pistons  of  small  area  c  c*  give  the  pressure 
by  using  oil  in  the  space  ;  a  lever  x  permits  this  being 
done  while  shaft  is  in  motion;  a  similar  lever  serves  to 
work  the  rack  and  pinion  until  the  double  intermediate 
wheels  over  the  intermediate  mechanism  which  is  loose  on 
the  shaft  is  secured;  a  toothed  wheel  which  serves  to  give 
motion  to  a  large  toothed  wheel  is  connected  to  the  car 

Figure  18  is  a  similar  device  but  the  two  left  hand 
intermediates  slide  up  and  down  and  are  not  tilted  -  the 
hydraulic  pressure  is  thus  more  evenly  applied.  Magnetic  at¬ 
traction  can  also  be  applied  in  both  cases. 

Figure  13  is  a  double  machine.  One  bobbin  is  fine 

wire  and  is  connected  to  the  high  tension  circuit  and  has 

its  own  field  .while  the  other  bobbin  i3  the  low  tension 

one  provided  with  its  own  field;  one  field  could  be  used 

for  bothjj^obbins  are  secured  to  and  rotate  with  one  common 
shaft.  This  obviates  the  danger  of  short  circuiting  and 
facilitates  repairs  in  case  of  accident  as  compared  to  the 
motor  generator  which  I  also  use  in  my  railroad  system; 
figure  13  can  bo  placed  at  intervals  along  the  lino,  the  low 
tension  bobbins  in  multiple  arc  on  the  track, while  the  bob¬ 
bins  for  hligh  tension  are  also  connected  at  inter '/ala  along 
the  track  in  multiple. arc  with  the  main  circuit  connected 
to  the  central  station.  If  it  is  desired  to  use  higher 
volts  than  25  or  with  25  volts  the  leakage  of  current  es- 
pedially  at  night  when  but  few  cars  are  running  is  rela- 


tively  large  compared  to  that  used  by  the  cars.  Every 
other  compound  motor  and  dynamo  may  be  disconnected  by 
sv/itohoa  controlled  electrically  from  the  central  station, 
or  the  low  tension  bobbin  may  be  disconnected  from  the 
track ,or  a  magnet  may  bo  used  to  automatically  disconnect 
the  low  tension  bobbin  when  the  oar  gets  on  the  section, the 
major  part  or  tho  current  of  which  is  received  from  that 
particular  bobbin-  Wien  the  car  is  not  in  the  vicinity, 
sec  figure  14, the  current  passing  through  the  magnet  and  re¬ 
sistance  R  is  insufficient  to  cause  the  levor  to  be  attract¬ 
ed, but  a3  the  car  approaches, it  soon  reaches  a  strength 
sufficient  to  pull  down  the  level*  causing  practically  all 
t’uo  resistance  to  be  out  out  of  circuit  except  enough  to 
energize  the  magnet  and  hold  its  leva*  until  the  car  re¬ 
cedes  in  the  distance  when  the  lever  flies  back  and  prac¬ 
tically  disconnects  the  bobbin-  of  course  resistance  and 
multiple  breaking  points  will  be  used  to  modify  the  spark 
at  the  moment  of  break  - 

Figure  15  shows  a  magnetic  di i'f erenti  si  driver-  The 
field  magnets  of  both  bobbins  form  one  piece  and  are  per¬ 
manently  secured  to  the  car  axle.  The  brushes  rotate  with 
the  field  and  the  current  is  not  to  them  by  smooth  disks  on 
the  field.  The  two  bobbins  rotate  in  opposite  directions 
and  are  geared  together  by  a  counter  shaft  and  belts, one  of 
which  is  a  crossed  belt.  If  now  the  strength  of  both  fiol* 
are  the  same  the  fields  will  stand  still  while  the  bobbins 
will  rotate  in  opposite  directions  up  to  such  a  speed  that 
the  counter  electro-motive  force  will  be  equal  to  the  primo 
force  minus  the  friction.  If  now  one  field  is  weakened  and 


the  other  strengthened  rotation  will  be  given  the  field  in 
proportion  to  the  different  speeds  of  the  two  bobbins;  one 
will  act  as  n  motor  while  the  other  will  act  as  a  dynewo.  I 
have  shown  the  devices  direct  on  the  car  axis  but  to  multi¬ 
ply  tho  magnetic  torque  it  is  between;  to  gear  tip  honce  a 
space  may  be  left  between  the  two  fields  without  disconnect¬ 
ing  thorn  from  each  other  and  a  pinion  placed  between  them 
which  engaged  in  a  large  spin  wheel  connected  to  the  car 

Figure  16  shows  smooth  coned  wheels  differentially 
arranged, the  traction  being  obtained  by  hydraulic  pressure. 

Figure  IV  shows  a  similar  device  with  straight  in¬ 
stead  of  coned  wheels- 

Figure  18  shows  a  reciprocating  differential  device 
for  driving  cars.  1  and  8  aro  the  motors  running  in  oppo¬ 
site  directions  and  at  equal  speed;  when  this  occurs  the 
rock  lever  3  merely  rocks  and  the  slide  S  stands  still.  If 
now  the  speed  of  1  is  decreased-  and  2  increased  a  recipro¬ 
cating  motion  will  be  givon  the  slide, and  when  the  differ¬ 
ence  of  speeds  are  3uch  that  1  has  l/2  the  original  speed 
and  2  double  the  original  speed, the  reciprocations  will  equal, 
the  original  speed.  The  extra  lever  on  the  slide  will 
serve  to  work  the  axle  of  the  car. 

Figure  19  is  a  method  of  taking  current  from  the 
rail  to  the  car. It  consists  of  a  heavy  chain  which  is  paid 
Out  and  taken  up  from  tho  rail  as  the  car  passes  ;the 
wei-drt  of  the  chain  making  contact  in  innumerable  places 
tho  links  are  connected  together  by  flexible  wires . 

A  better  device  is  shown  in  figure  20;  a  number  of 


wheols  on  levers  roll  on  tho  center  rail ; these  wheels  have 
sharp  points  and  force  themselves  through  the  Kictd  mud  and 
sancl  on  the  rail  and  insure  good  contact;  on  account  of  the 
lo\y  voltage  which  it  is  essential  to  use  to  prevent  excess¬ 
ive  loss  in  leakage  and  also  to  prevent  tho  shocking  of 
horses  which  may  pass  ova-  the  rails, it  is  essential  to  take 
tho  current  from  the  rail  at  a  groat  number  of  pi  aces, the 
volume  of  current  being  twenty  or  thirty  time 3  greater  than 
is  now  usual  with  street  car  motors. 

Figure  31  is  two  separate  views  of  those  contaot  - 


Figure  HZ  shows  a  magnetic  pinion  driving  a  large 
wheel  by  magnetic  traction. 

Figure  553  shows  a  plan  for  transferring  power  and 
di ing  the  same  at  a  distance  from  ono  or  more  sta¬ 
tions;  owing  to  tho  necessity  of  tho  use  of  high  tension 
currents  it  is  preferable  t«>  place  on  one  shaft  several 
dynano  bobbins  all  rotated  together  , they  being  connected 
m  series »  If  we  use  say  three  bobbins  on  one  shaft  and 
three  separate  fields  the  bobbins  may  have  say  3000  volts 
each;  the  three  combined  will  have  0000  volts  and  yet  the 
difference  of  tension  on  any  two  wires  of  any  individual  bob¬ 
bin  will  bo  only  3000  volts.  The  fields  are  wound  for  low 
tension  and  the  whole  throe  may  be  placed  in  multiple  arc 
with  the  field  energizing  circuit;  an  adjustable  resistance 
is  placed  in  each  fiel d  circuit  so  tho  tension  given  out  by 
each  dynamo  will  bo  equal  at  equal  speeds .  The  main  field 
energizing  circuit  is  kept  at  constant  pressure; each  dynamo 
field  circuit  with  its  three  fields  in  multiple  arc  passes 

through  a  re/rulatin g  resistance  box  and  then  is  connected 
to  the  main  field  energizing  circuit.  If  there  be  more 
i,hari  one  grouped  dynamo  field  to  regulate  the  field  regu¬ 
lators  are  all  connected  together  and  reflated  as  a  v/holo, 

arc,  tho  individual  resistance  of  each  field  of  the  grouped 
dyna-io  bavin/'  its  balancing-  resistance  as  previously  men¬ 
tioned.  Generally  vat  or  power  i«  used  and  in  many  cases 

cult  especially  if  the  plqni 

steam  engine  may  be  employed  to  ener-izo  the  main  field  cir¬ 
cuit  by  its  dynamos; two  or  more  dynamos  should  be  used  for 
this  purpose  to  insure  reliability, although  one  may  be  quite 
sufficient  to  do  the  work,  or  from  the  main  circxiit  of  the 
grouped  dynamos  one  or  more  self  regulating  moto*.  may  have 
tiieir  shafts  directly  connsctod  to  dynamos  in  multiple  arc 
across  tho  main  field  energizing  circuit,  or  if  the  motors 
are  not  automatic  a  ball  governor  may  be  used  which  will 
thnow  resistance  in  and  out  of  the  main  circuit  of  the  mo- 

’  be  made  -to  in 

:•  diminish  the  strength  of  tho 

field  of  the  motor  and  thus  insure 

ad'  speed  and  pow- 

equired  to  connect  the 

(he  grouped  dynamos  be: 
he  building  so  by  shii 

ranged  from  shafting  throughout 
a  bell,  the  engine  may  bring  tho 

dynamo  up  t0  the  exact  speed  of  the  water  wheel  shaft  and 
jhen  a  positive  locked  clutch  can  be  thrown  in  and  the  en- 


dl  8 connected.  Tho  dyr 

>  might  bo  started  up  as 

by  first  energising  its  fields  and  then  gradually  in- 
.s ing  the  strength  of  the  oirrent  until  tho  spoocl  was 
1  to  tho  water  shaft-  then  the  permanent  olutoh  could 
h.rovm  in, anti  the  current  gradually  withdraw* {,%•  incroas 
the  field  strength  ^  a  point  would  bo  reached  where 
e  v/or.l d  be  practical  ly  no  current  which  is  the  point 

I  when  it  is  about  ceasing  to  be  a  motor  and  is  to  become  a 
dynamo;  at  this  point  the  circuit  can  be  broken.  It  is  then 
ready  to  he  thrown  into  the  main  circuit.  Tho  method  of  dis¬ 
connecting  from  tho  circuit  is  by  weakening  the  group  of 
fields  to  a  point  where  it  ceases  to  bo  a  dynamo  and  then  by 
a  multiple  switch  breaking  the  current  in  series  over  many 
contact  points,  disconnect  the  grouped  dynemo  from  the  main 
circuit.  An  amperemet er  should  be  interpolated  into  each 
grouped  dynamo  circuit  before  it  passes  to  the  Jnain.  Owing 
to  the  great  danger  of  high  tension  cirouits  all  of  the  con¬ 
ductors  should  reach  the  dynamos  and  apparatus  from  the 
ceiling  and  be  insulated  at  their  lower  extremities. 

The  bobbin  of  each  group  and  its  commutator  should 

be  thoroughly  insulated  j 

the  main  shaft.  This  is  i 

I  very  readily  effected  owing  to  the  great  amount  of  power 
each  bobbin  takes  and  if  it  is  to  be  insulated  from  the 
driving  shaft  so  that  under  no  circumstances  the  wire  of 
one  bobbin  will  become  crossed  with  the  wire  of  another 
through  the  intermediary  of  the  shaft,  a  large  block  of 
insulating  material  must  be  placed  between  the  bobbin  and 
the  shaft-  now  insulating  material  has  very  little  strength 
perhaps  Lignum  Vi eta  might  bo  used.  Perhaps  it  would  be 


better  to  have  each  bobbin  have  its  ovm  shaft  and  bearings 
and  connect  the  throe  end  on  by  a  large  block  of  insulating 
material  in  the  form  of  a  clutch.  The  bearings  in  t M s 
case  should  be  insulated  from  the  floor ; whore  largo  anoints 
of  power  is  to  be  transmitted  to  a  great  distance  it  is 
best  to  use  the  earth  as  a  return  circuit  ,  thu  earth  being 
made  by  trenching  dov/n  to  the  water  line  and  a  little  below 
making  several  parallel  tranches-  then  throw  in  about  a 
foot  of  gas  retort  colte-then  lay  sheets  of  copper  over 
thi s, connect ing  a  dozen  of  more  wires  to  each  strip  by  fu- 
sion  of  the  copper  itself-  then  throw  one  foot  more  of  coke 
over  the  copper, then  heavy  stonos  for  one  foot-  then  fill 
in  the  earth.  The  wires  after  contact  with  the  strips 
should  be  insulated  and  all  come  to  a  common  wire  in  a  shed 
over  the  earth  plates;  it  is  b:st  to  have  a  reserve  ser¬ 
ies  of  plates  using  one  set  for  a  time  and  then  changing  so 
the  effect  of  use  can  be  ascertained  by  digging  -  by  drench¬ 
ing  the  coke  with  sulphate  of  copper  and  the  use  of  a  dynara 
current  jckax  the  whole  of  the  coke  may  be  copper  plated. 

Instead  of  employing  a  single  wire  to  the  distant 
point  several  should  be  used  all  separated  from  each  other 
as  far  as  possible  or  run  by  different  routes,  but  at  one 
or  more  intermediate  points  they  should  all  come  together 
and  bo  bunched  at  one  point  electrically  with  safety  fuseB 
inserted  in  each  just  before  the  contact.  These  safety 
catches  should  be  in  each  wire  on  both  sides  of  the  point 
where  they  are  bunched.  This  same  thing  should  take  place 
sot  only  at  intermediate  tost  offices  but  at  the  primal 


st  at  ion  and  at  the  distributing  stations  at  the  distant 
point.  If  for  any  reason  any  one  wire  between  two  bunched 
!  points  becomes  grounded  it  will  free  itself  by  burning  both 
safety  fuses-  then  it  can  be  roapired  in  safety  and  connect¬ 
ed  again  to  the  circuit  by  proper  switches  without  danger  ; 
one  section  or  wire  over  tho  whole  distance  should  be  a 
spare.  Where  it  is  possible  tho  main  conductors  should  be 
laid  under  water  the  entire  distance  such  as  in  a  river, but 
if  this  is  impossible  then  they  should  be  run  in  pipes 
through  which  water  is  flowing  under  a  known  pressure.  If 
the  wires  are  to  be  over  head  there  should  be  at  least  throe 
widely  separated  routes  and  on  every  fourth  pole  in  a  water 
proof  box  should  be  placed  a  lightning  arrester  connected  to 
a  very  perfect  earth, and  there  should  be  a  cross  wire  of 
large  carrying  oapacity  connect iig  the  various  routes  to¬ 
gether  at  right  angles  to  the  routo  of  the  wires  and  a  safe¬ 
ty  catch  should  be  put  in  each  wire  on  both  sides  of  this 
section  wire.  At  tho  primal  station  and  at  the  distribut¬ 
ing  stations  interpolated  in  the  circuit  should  be  a  power¬ 
ful  choking  magnet  with  cores  closed  on  its  poles  and  a 
large  sized  and  sensitive  lightning  arrester  or  a  multiplic¬ 
ity  of  them  connected  to  tho  earth  so  if  lighxning  comes  in 
over  the  wires  the  choking  magnet  will  cause  it  to  pass  to 
the  lightning  arrester  and  earth  and  not  to  tho  apparatus 
in  the  station. 

At  tho  distributing  station  I  propose  to  energize 
tho  fields  by  a  separate  steam  engine  accurately  governed 
with  a  spare  engine-  or  by  motors  provided  with  a  governor, 
i’o  put  on  a  motor  I  either  get  it  'up  to  speed  by  means  of 

a  general  system  of  shafting  and  shaft  belts  run  by  an 
engine  or  motor  or  start  the  motor  by  a  weak  curr ont  until 
it  reaches  the  same  tension  as  tho  main  and  then  shift  it 
over  to  the  main.  Mien  the  dynamos  which  it  runs  can  bo 
thrown  in  to  the  distributing  circuits.  I  propose  to  couple 
tho  distributing  dynamos  either  directly  to  both  ends  of  the 
shaft  or  hy  rope  driving-  The  dynamos  are  to  be  insulated 
by  several  inches  of  insulating  material.  At  each  distribut¬ 
ing  station  I  have  a  ground  wire  oi’  a  single  ground  can  be 
used  with  a  leading  wire  to  all  of  the  distributing  stations 
which  are  to  be  worked  all  in  multiple  arc;  a  pressure  wire 
runs  back  to  the  primal  station  and  thence  to  earth  through 
a  volt  indicator,  the  prime  station  keeping  constant  press¬ 
ure  at  the  distributing  station,  that  is  to  say  at  the  near¬ 
est  station,  the  size  of  the  wire  leading  from  the  nearest 
station  to  all  the  others  being  larger  than  the  main  so  that 
no  serious  drop  in  tension  will  take  place  . 

Figure  23  shows  tho  general  plan  A, the  prime  station 
D,  the  main  line  and  B  C  the  distributing  station.  In  small¬ 
er  plants  where  it  is  desired  to  distribute  direct  to  the 
consumers  the  power  other  than  licfct,  each  consumer  i3  pro¬ 
vided  with  a  grouped  motor  and  a  shifting  belt  with  loose 
pulley-  the  field  ie  made  by  putting  all  the  fields  in  ser¬ 
ies  across  the  line  -  then  the  work  to  be  done  is  thrown  off 
so  the  motor  bobbin  only  has  itself  to  start;  a  resistance 
is  inserted  in  the  line  and  the  bobbin  is  connected  to  the 
line  either  with  or  without  a  choking  coil  to  ease  up  the 
suddenness  of  the  current;  as  it  speeds  up  the  resistance  is 


gr  a  dually  withdrawn  until  it  attains  full  speed  when  the  bolt 
is  shifted  and  the  load  put  on.  Those  /■rouped  dynamos 
can  be  made  of  variotts  horsepower  a  to  suit  consumers  an  d  all 
the  groups  worked  in  multiple  arc. 

Where  it  is  desired  to  collect  into  one  circuit 
from  several  small  water  powers  it  is  essential  either  to 
govern  the  water  wheel  or  put  an  automatic  regulator  on  tho 
dynamo  or  put  a  ball  .governor  on  the  dynamo  oijvater  shaft 
and  cause  it  to  throw  resistance  either  in  the  field  of  alt. 
the  dyn two 8  or  in  tho  main  circuit  of  all  of  them.  If  tho 
multipolar  type  of  dynamo  is  used  the  fields  are  very  quick 
to  act-hence  cans iip;  the  governor  to  regulate  the  field  will 
be  best-owing  to  the  fact  that  no  attention  is  likely  to 
be  given  the  dynamos  .  Either  carbon  brushes  or  resistance 

I  wires  from  the  segments  of  the  armature  to  the  commutator, 
and  automatic  shifting  of  the  brushes  to  suit  the  load  must 

State  of 


: — 88 . 


Thomas  Alva  Edison  being  duly  ovrorn  deposes  and 
says;  that  he  is  a  citizen  of  the  United  States  and  a  resi¬ 
dent  of  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex, and  State  of 
Mew  Jersey,  and  that  he  verily  beClieves  himself  to  be  the 
original  and  first  inventor  of  the  improvements  set  forth 
in  the  above  caveat. 

Subscribed  and  svrorn  to  before  me  this  day  of 

C ^ 189  0. 


To  the  Gomni suioner  of  Patents:  j 

The  petition  of  Thomas  Alva  Edison,  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  pea  Id Inc  at  Llewellyn  Paris,  in  the  County 
of  Essex,  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  i*ep  resents: 

That  he  has  mado  certain  improvements  in  phono¬ 
graphs,  and  that  he  is  nov  engaged  in  making  experiments  ■ 
for  the  purpose  of  perfecting  the  same,  preparatory  to  ap¬ 
plying  for  letters  patent  thorofor..  He  therefore  prays 
that  the  subjoined  description  of  his  invention  maybe 
filed  as  a  caveat  in  the  confidential  arohlves  of  the 


Be  it  known,  that  I,  Thomas  Alva  Edison,  a 
citizen  of  the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park, 
in  the  Cornty  of  Kss<ax  and  State  of  Now  Jersey,  having  in¬ 
vented  improvements  in  phonographs,  and  desiring  further 
to  mature  the  some,  file  this  my  caveat  therefor,  and  pray 
protection  of  my  right  until  I  shall  have  matured  my  in¬ 

The  following  is  a  description  of  my  newly  in¬ 
vented  improvenents,  which  is  as  full,  clear  and  exact  as  I 
am  able  at  this  time  to  give,  reference  being  had  to  the 
drawings  hereto  annexed. 

There  is  groat  difficulty  In  phonograph  cylinders 
when  attempting  to  give  them  a  strong  backing,  owing  to 
the  small  expansion  of  the  most  available  materials  as  com¬ 
pared  to  the  expansion  of  the  wax  itself.  1  have  UBed 
hard  rubber,  as  the  expansion  of  this  material  cones  olose 
to  the  expansion  of  the  wax  itself,  but  this  is  too  ex¬ 
pensive  for  g  moral  use.  I  haw  found  that  sulphur  has 
about  the  right  expansion;  it  can  be  moulded  after  molting 
in  gold-plated  moulds  and  afterwards  coated  with  the 
phonograph  wax  by  dipping  it  cold  into  the  molted  wax.  I 
prefer  to  powder  the  sulphur  and  mix  it  intimately  with 
powdered  asphalt  or  an  oxide  of  a  metal  Buoh  as  Litharge, 
and  then  to  mould  a  blank  by  pressure  while  the  powder  is 
heated.  In  the  case  of  asphalt,  there  is  in  addition  to 
cohesion  an  actual  combination,  as  sulphur  displaces  hydro- 

gen  from  the  asphalt.  In  the  oas®  of  lead  oxide,  there 
is  also  combination  with  the  lead  to  form  a  suLphid®  which 
looks  the  particles  together.  I  do  not  confine  myself  to 
any  particular  locking  material,  as  almost  any  cgnenting 
material  can  be  used,  the  great  object  being  to  obtain  a 
stiff  blank  of  the  proper  expansion. 

Figure  1  is  a  magnetic  separator.  A  is  a 
traveling  belt  traveling  in  the  direction  shown  by  the 
arrow.  Behind  are  a  series  of  magnets,  the  belt  rubbing 
on  their  faces,  which  are  either  polished  or  have  iron 
rollers.  H  is  the  spout  for  folding  the  crude  ore  to  bo 
separated.  K,  It,  M,  K  are  buckets  which  serve  to  take 
away  the  concentrated  iron  when  it  reaoheB  the  top  magnet 
whioh  is  sot  Bide-wiBe  from  its  neighbors. 

Figure  2  shows  a  nunber  of  long,  cylindrical 
magnets  all  revolved  together  by  gear  wheels.  They  are 
double  Siemens  armature  magnets,  having  2,  4  or  more 
polos.  The  ore  falling  in  close  proximity  to  the  top 
magnet,  loads  that  up  with  magnetic  material;  as  soon  as 
it  is  overburdened,  the  surplus  is  attracted  to  No.  2 
magnet,  and  when  this  is  overloaded  the  surplus  is  at¬ 
tracted  to  No.  3,  and  on  this  getting  overloaded  it  drops 
off  the  magnet  into  a  bin.  By  employing  a  great  number  of 
these  magnets,  the  particles  are  re-arranged  several  times 
and  very  perfect  concentration  is  obtained. 

IS'iSLU-e  5  shows  the  asm©  thing  arranged  horizontal 
ly.  If  the  concentrate  is  to  bo  very  good,  the  whole 
frame  is  tilted  so  Ho.  7  stands  lowor  than  1,  honoe  the 
concentrate  mast  go  down  with  gravity  slowly. 

Figure  4  shows  a  long  revolving  magnet.  Grooves 
aro  turned  in  the  Iron  drum  and  in  theso  grooves  are  ooilod 
wire.  A  current  passing  makes  one  side  of  oaoh  groove  K 
and  the  other  side  S  all  around  the  cylinder.  If  ore  is 
fed  on  to  ono  end  the  iron  particles  bridge  over,  and  the 
pins  X  taKtas*  break  the  bridge  and  thus  agitato  the  ore  so 
ac  to  permit  the  gangue  to  free  itself.  I  have  shown  one 
row  of  pins,  but  thore  arc  several  rows.  The  cylinder  at 
the  hopper  end  is  slightly  higher  than  the  other  to  allow 
the  ore  to  oreop  along. 

Figure  5  shows  a  hollow  brass  cylinder  1, 
with  ma^iets  8  on  the  outside.  The  ore  fran  the  hopper  3 
drops  in  the  center  and  is  attraotod  to  the  aide  and  sticks 
thore  until  its  weight  causes  it  to  slide  down;  this  it 
does  continuously. 

Figure  6  shows  a  revolving  brass  disk  D, behind 
which,  see  figure  7,  are  arranged  magiots,  their  faceB  or 
poloB  nearly  touching  the  disk.  Ore  iB  fed  at  A  and  taken 
off  by  a  scraper  at  B.  The  ore  is  agitated,  ana  the 
friction  of  tho  rotating  disk  prevents  overloading  the 
first  magnets  rooeiving  crude  ore. 

-  5  - 

Figure  8  shows  a  tube  on  the  outBide  of  whioh  arc 
a  ntsnber  of  magnets;  inside  is  a  screw  conveyer.  Oro  is 
fed  in  at  one  end  and  the  concentrate  and  tailings  is  con¬ 
tinuously  fed  past  all  the  magnets  to  the  othor  end,  the 
oro  being  agitated  considerably. 

Figure  9  shows  a  differential  magnetic  gear  for 
electric  railroad  oars.  Shafts  1  and  £  are  oonnected 
sqparotoly  to  motors.  They  rotate  in  different  directions. 
£  d  are  iron  disks  having  grooves  turned  in  their  beveled 
peripheries  into  which  wire  iB  coiled.  This  causes  both 
to  be  circularly  magnetized.  B  is  an  intonnadiate  pulley 
or  idler  also  of  iron;  there  are  several,  all  rotating  on 
bearings  secured  to  a  disk  X,  to  which  is  secured  the 
driving  toothed  gear.  X  and  gear  are  loose  on  the  shaft.’ 
The  magi etic  pull  gives  sufficient  traction  to  drive  the 
oar  without  friction  or  slip,  as  there  is  a  g$in  of  lever¬ 
age  between  £  £  B  and  the  teoth  of  the  driving  pinnion - 

current  is  taken  off  by  h  and  K. 

Figure  10  shows  the  same  thing  except  springs 
1,  2  (shape  shown  in  figure  11)  are  used  to  draw  the 
disks  against  the  idlers  and  thus  produo©  traction.  Those 
springs  wpuld  be  arranged  at  the  other  ond  of  the  motor 
shafts,  giving  than  an  end  thrust,  but  this  would  tend  to 
bow  the  shaft.  Where  the  springs  rub  on  shaft  as  in 
figure  10  it  is  made  veiy  small  so  as  to  roduoe  friction; 
rollers  or  steel  balls  could  bo  used  to  still  further  re¬ 
duce  friotion. 

IPigure  12  stows  the  motor  shafts  running  in  the 
ion.  The  differential  motion  is  produced  as 

II  and  2  are  both  fixed  on  ona  Bhaft  connected  to 
the  frame  X,  which  is  soourod  at  other  points  by  fixed 
shafts  to  hold  it  toother.  5,  6,  7,  8  are  springs  which 
cauEsoo  traction  botvrocn  the  main  wheels  and  1,  2  and  3,  4. 

!  nguro  13  is  an  end  view.  If  speed  of  IT  and  M 

are  the  same  1,  2  and  3,  4  rotate  simply  on  their  own  axis. 

|  If  M  is  increased  in  speed,  the  excess  of  speed  serves  to 
give  an  additional  motion  of  the  whole  on  the  axis  of  M. 

same  direct 

figure  14  is  a  device  for  doing  away  with  one 
motor  which  serves  to  conserve  the  power  by  acting  as  a 
|  dynamo  in  the  various  differential  motions  I  have  already 
I  shown  in  other  oaveats.  1  is  a  drum  cone.  9  a  point 
whore  the  cone  is  reduced  in  size  so  that  when  4  is  shoved 
up  in  contact  with  2  there  will  be  no  difference  of  Bp cods 
|  on  their  outer  edges.  4  slides  on  the  shaft  3,  which  is 
drawn  down  hard  upon  1  by  the  springs  to  produce  driving 

I  traction.  5  and  13  are  arms  connected  to  14  whereby  with 
lever  12  the  wheels  4,  4'  may  be  put  at  any  position  on  the 
cone.  8  and  10  is  the  frame  carrying  the  rotating  shafts 
with  their  traction  wheels  and  is  suitably  locked  together. 
To  this  revolving  frame  is  connected  the  driving  pinnion., . 

8  —  10  Is  looBe  on  the  motor  shaft  11.  TThen  4,  4'  is 
beside  2,  2*  the  two  simply  rotate  on  thoir  own  axis  ;  if 
4,  4'  is  drawn  down  to  the  small  part  of  the  cone,  its 

I  speed  will  bo  loss  than  %  and  as  it  is  keyed  to  the  same 
shaft ,  it  causes  2  to  move  10—8  around  the  axis  of  the 
motor  3'aft  11  in  proportion  to  the  difference  of  speed 
between  4  and  2. 

ffifiuro  15  is  a  similar  device.  A,  B  are  rotated 
and  Brins  tho  same  surface  velocity  down  to  the  shaft  as 
the  outer  aurfuoe  of  d  by  proper  means  moves  up  and 
down  on  the  fixed  shaft. 

Thin  specification  signed  and  witnessed 
this  day  of  August,  1890. 

Witnesses:  CL// 

<00  2^.. 


State  of  Mew  Jersey 
County  of  Essex 

THOMAS  ALVA  EMI  SOM,  bein<;  duly 
worn,  deposes  and  says:  that  he  is  a  citizen  of  the 

I  United  States  and  a  resident  of  Llewellyn  Par*,  in  the 
jj  County  of  Essex  md  State  of  Now  Jeraoy,  and  that  he  verily 
believes  himself  to  be  tho  original  and  first  inventor  of 
the  improvements  sot  forth  in  the  above  caveat. 

Subscribed  and  ov/om  to  before  mo 
this  '  day  of  August  1S90 

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The  petition  of  Thomas  A.  Sdison,  a  citizen- of 
the  United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County 
of  «?3sox  and  State  of  Mew  Jorsoy,  represents: 

That  he  has  made  certain  improvements  in 
Manufacturing  Iron,  and  that  he  is  engaged  in  perfecting  the 
same,  preparatory  to  applying  for  Letters  patent  therefor, 
he  therefore  prays  that  the  annexed  description  of  his  in- 
ven  tion  may  be  filed  as  a  caveat  in  the  confidential  archives 
of  the  Patent  Office. 



Pa  it.  known  that  I  'S.t«nms  A.  Edison,  retd ding 
at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  thy  County  of  Sfinox  and  State  of  Uew 
Jar soy,  have  invented  certain  imp  ro  van  ants  in  the  Na.mfaoture 
of  Iron,  and  desiring  fuitther  time  to  mature  the  sane,  file 
this  my  caveat  therefor,  and  pray  protection  of  my  rights 
until  I  shall  have  matured  my  invention. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  the  invention 

In  the  concentration  of  iron  ores  I  have  a  scoria  in  od 
by  experiment  that  the  phosphorous  so  deleterious  to  Iron  is 
never  found  combined  with  the  Iron  in  Magnetic  iron  oro,  but 
almost  invariably  is  combined  with  lime  in  the  Ibnn  of  apa¬ 
tite  or  Phosphate  of  lime.  There  is  a  point  where  if  tho  ore 
is  crushed  fine  enough  the  separation  of  the  gangue  with 
Magnetic  separators  removes  nearly  all  the  phosphorous  ,  but 
rtaohed  to  the  particles  of 
detached  in  the 

act  of  crushing.  Ths  phosphate  of  lime, I  find  ,  in  manipu¬ 
lating  the  ore,  tends  to  run  to  dust  more  than  the  other  gangusj; 
the  dust  is  so  exceedingly  fine  that  i  t  adheres  persist yi tly 
to  the  ore  particles,  either  by  electrical  attraction  when  dry 
or  by  capilliary  adhesion,  when  wet.  If  the  ore  is  brought  to 
2op  or  300  deg.  fa  hr.  the  dust  becomes  detached  on  the  slight- 

still  u  considerab-1  e  portion  : 

Iron  ore  as  dust  ora^parti  cl  es  of  apatite 

through  th  •  central  pipe  to  .ugitate  the  ore  and  cause  the 
solution  to  take  new  positions.  The  solution  is  then  drawn 
off  to  b 0  strain  used  until  the  acid  is  too  weal:  to  act. 

The  am-unt  of  sold  rsqui  red  generally  is  about  ono  pound  of 
acid  to  ouch  aiisf. thousandth  of  one  par  cant  of  phosphorous 
remaining  in  the  or 9.  J.«--»t.-ad  of  producing  tho  acid  roaotioj 

in  the  washing  chtrfber  it  way  be  dona  in  separate  tan'  s. 

The  chanib  or  is  of  iron  lined  with  rubber^or  is  of  a  material 
not  affected  by  the  acide 

In  washing  &  con  side rab Is  portion  of  the;  very  fins  iron 
will  ;;o  over  with  th  •;  muddy  'water;  to  pr -vent  this  I  surround 
tho  cylinder  with  a  coil  of  wire  near  the  top  which  magnetiz¬ 
es  the  iron  a-d  attracts  any  partial  as  which  would  tend  to 
pass  over. A  central  magnet  dipping  in  the  water  might  also  be 
used.  Another  method  of  clearing  the  dust  in  to  drop  the 
ore  in  a  ffhe  stream  while  hot  into  a  high  chamber  also  heat¬ 
ed.  The  dust  floats  away  from  the  body  of  ore.  In  a 

Bessemer  converter  very  fine  pure  mayi  etio  oxide  may  be  talc  en 
into  the  air  blast  on  th  a  hi  f  ford  or  .‘".prong  el  pump  principle- 
and  the  oxygen  o  f  the;  ore  will  serve  to  decarbonise  tho  molterj. 
pig  ir-<n  just  as  well  a  a  ihe  oxygen  of  the  air,  a.nd  at  the 
same  tinje.-the  gain  in  iron  is  very  considerable.  This  gain 

can  b  s  increased  by  ir.ixin  *  with  the  ore  fine  cok  a  or  coal  1: 
dust,  or  petroleum  vapor,  and  permitting  both  to  pass  simui 
taneously.  Thu.-  the  carbon  is  continuously  supplied  and 
when  the  burden  of  the  convertor  is  so  increased  that  die  air 
pressure  is  falling  too  fast  the  supply  of  coal  dust  is  shut 
off  and  the  i*'ron  ore  treated  until  the  CP ib  on  is  all  burned 
out.  Fine  ore  can  also  be  put  into  the  melting  ' 


whero  the  ivon  ls  b8in.~  -There  will  be  a  gain  -■ 

in  iron; and  the  cupola  gasses  will  not  b e  bo  rich  in  cnrboni. 
oxide.  In  \hn  blast  .'Virna ce  the  w&fcte  .rtasscfs  sontainin^  con¬ 
sul  era  bl  e  useful  carbonic  oxide;  may  be  made  to  pass  in  to  a  rg« 
due  ing  ohu  ber  oont.ninl  ng  fine  magnetic  oxide  -  reducing  1  T. 
to  mot  alii  o  iron  anti  th  n  the  as  can  pass  to  the  hot  bin  st 
Btovos  -  while  the  ironic  t.i-on,  e«J  through  a  closed  ds  tuba 
to  the  well  of  molten  iron  beneath  the  tuyere. 

For  unloadin  :  magnetic  iron  ore  a  derrick  with  a  flat 
wooden  platform  to  fftioh  a  nutob  or  of  magnets  ire  secured  is 
used.  The  magnets  ore  charged  and  allowed  to  rest  on  the 
ore  and  will  lift  half  a  ton  or  so;  th  :■  derrick  is  swung 
aaide,  ih  o  him  ;n  otic  circuit  opened,  and  tho  oro  dropped  in 
the  proper  place.  This  derrick  is  alto  useful  for  unloading 
Pig  iron,  and  also  for  loading  skips  or  carts  in  open  cut 
mines  of  m-gnetic  ores,  the  fines  especially  being  rapidly 
gathered.  P  In  boring  cannon  there  is  trouble  in  removing  the 
boring  bar  chips;  I  accomplish  thiB  by  a  helox  slipped  along 
the  boring  bar  which  makes  ii  pole  a  little  ways  back  of  the 
end  of  the  bar  to  which  spot  the  chips  fly  -  or  by  using  a 
rod  with  a  magnet  on  the  end  having  poles  close  together;  this 
thrust  In  and  out  by  the  workman  removes  the  chips. 

The  air  fed  to  a  blast  furnace  may  have  some  fine  iron 
oxic^ mixed  with  it  by  the  Gifford  principle.  This  will  he 
reduced  at  the  point  where  carbonic  oxide  is  formed  and  then 
will  pass  into  the  slag  where  it  is  prevented  from  being 
reoxidizod.  P  When  it  is  necessary  to  form  fine  kxkh  ore  into 
bricks,  C  mix  1/10  by  weight  of  well  burnt  lime  and  then  slake 
the  whole  just  sufficiently  with  water  to  permit  the  whole  to 

I  bo  moulded.  Tho  bricks  ure  then  exposed  so  as  to  harden  by 
tho  ?.b  3  -  r  o  t,  ion  np  urbonio  acid  from  the  air  or  by  putt  inn 
them  in  a  closed  space  filled  with  carbonic  acid  derived  from 
tho  lime  bulling  kilr.  .  Another  method  is  to  use  crude  Rosen 
and  Limamixted  well  »nd  thus  heat  od;  the  ro  sen  c  omb  in  ee  with 
the  lime  to  form  un  infusible  rasinate.  About  30  to  40  pounds 
of  roc  in  is  sufficient  for  n  ton  of  ore;  the  amount  of  lime 
should  bo  sufficient  to  fully  saturate  the  acid  Resin. 

Another  method  is  the  use  of  silicate  of  soda. 

Figure  1  shows  a  nagnotio  separator^  is  the  ore  funnel: 

Id  a  belt,  carrying  or  to  the  separator.  B  a  dick  of  «.  etal 
lined  undorneftth  with  rubber.  A  is  a  disk  na;n«t  section 
shown  in  Fi g.  2.  %e  magnet  revolves  holding  the  ore  against 
the  rubber.  The  ore  is  dragged*  around  and.  0  troves  it 
after  the  gangue  has  been  agitated  out.  H  are  v/ ires  by 
which  current  is  led  to  the  ma.-yi  -its.  g  :is  a  pulley  by  which 
A  is  rotat.ed.  Figures  '  aid  4  show  a  magnetic  separator  . 

A  is  a  revolving  screen  through  which  the  oro  passes,  the  only 
object  being  t.o  distribute  ths  ore  over  the  belt,  R  Sifld  not 
for  scrolling  purposes.  The  bolt  B  runs  at  a  high  speed 
so  that  the  gangue  is  thrown  off  at  X  The  roller  o  1 

is  a  circular  magnet  the  same  as  is  used  for  magnetic  trans¬ 
mission  of,  power  belts.  The  rubber  belt  has  cleats  b'  of 
rubber  across  i  tB  surface  at  intervale  and  this  causes  tho  orr 
to  be  stripped  and.  thrown  as  at  X1  •  Two  rings  and  contacts 
sparing  at  x  n  serve  to  carry  current  to  the  revolving  magnet . 
Figure  5  shows  conical  water  separator  ooncen trators,  the  up¬ 
right  cylinder  referred  to  oft  pegs  3  being  omitted.  1,  2,  3 
4,  5  and  3  are  the  fixed  magnets  for  holding  the  charge  of  ori 


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P  E  T  I  non, 

I  The  petition  of  Thomas  A.  Edison,  a  ciiizon  of  the 

United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of 
Essex,  and  State  of  New  Jersey,  represents: 

|l  That  he  has  made  certain  improvements  in  the  manu¬ 

facture  of  iron,  and  that  he  is  now  engaged  in  making  experi- 
I  ments  for  the  purpose  of  perfecting  the  same,  preparatory  to 
j  applyin 3  for  Letters  Patent  t.herofor.  ,He  therefore  prays 
that  the  subjoined  description  of  his  invention  may  be  filed 
as  a  caveat  in  the  confidential  archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 

To  the  Comm  i  s  si  on  er  of  Patents: 

Bei  it  known  that  I,  Thomas  A.  Edison,  of  Llewellyn 
Park,  in  the  County  of  Essex  and  State  of  "ew  Jersey,  have 
invented  an  improvement  in  manu faotu.vifrg  iron,  and  desiring 
.further  time  to  mature  the  sane,  file  this  my  caveat  therefor, 
and  pray  protection  of  my  rights  until  I  Stall  have  matured  my 

The  following  is  a  dose  ration  of  my  improvement; 
which  is  as  full,  clear  and  9xact  as  I  am  able  at  this  time 
to  gly §! 

In  th9  oono  entration  of  iron  ores  it  is  often  essen¬ 
tial  to  grind  the  ore  very  fine  to  rgnove  the  gangue  to  the 
degree  required,  as  well  as  to  diminish  the  amount  of  phos¬ 
phate  of  calcium.  I  an  conducting  experiments  to  ascertain 
the  cheap ent  and  moat  desirable  process  to  fbrm  the  powderec 
ore  into  lump  ore,  and  at  the  same  time  to  diminish  the  use¬ 
less  gangue  and  phosphurous  as  far  as  possible  economically. 

The  ore  which  I  concentrate  is  magnetic  oxide  of 
iron.  ■'  is  concentrated  as  far  as  practicable,  I  wash 
it  to  eliminate  flinely  divided  phosphate  of  lime  which  adheres 
to  th  e  ore  particles.  This  washing  removes  other  {f.ngus  as 
well  so  that  the  purity  outside  of  the  rgnoval  of  the  phosphu 
rouse  is  increased.  If  the  ore  contains  finely  divided  part¬ 
icles  of  sulphate  of  iron  I  allow  it  to  drop  through  a  hot 
air  oolumn  whode  temperature  is  sufficient  to  entirely  oxidizs 

the  sulphur  of  the  sulphide. The  or  s  i  s  then  ready  for  bricking 


The  fipst  method  is  as  follows:  Mix  one  ton  of  the 


ore  200  lbs.  pf  caustic  lime  with  sufficient  water  to  pgrmit 
it  being  molded  in  a  briolt  press,  mold  it,  then  dry  the  brick 
and  soak  th'an  in  a  crude  petroleum  containing  say,  25  per  can- 
of  the  yellow  residue  from  the  petroleun  stills,  or  r\y.  in 
oommon  Mexican  asphalt  or  rosin,  or  soak  than  in  a  rosin  soap 
solution,  then  heat  the  bricks  sufficiently  to  carbonize  the 
carbonizabl  e  ccwipound. 

A  second  method  is  as  follows:  Mix  with  one  ton  of  ore 

200  lbs.  of  freshly  slaked  lime,  with  sufficient  water  to  per¬ 
mit  thawhoHa  to  be  molded  into  brides,  then  dry  and  permit 
the  bricks  to  absorb  the  :iarbonic  acid  from  tiie  air.  To 
hasten  this  the  bricks  may  be  packed  in  a  closed  building 
kept  fill ‘3d  with  carbonic  aoid  by  the  burning  pf  lime. 

To  still  further  harden  the  line-  the  bricks  may  be  soak¬ 
ed  in  a  solution  of  rosin  soap,  or  asphalt,  in  petroleum. 

Another  plan  is  to  mix  with  each  ton  of  the  ore  50  to  75 
lbs.  of  fine  Portland  Cement  with  proper  amount  of  water  fthd 
then  allow  i t  to  harden. 

Another  plan  is  to  mix  with  a  ton  of  ore  200  lbs.  of 
burnt  magnesian,  limestone,  or  dolomite,  and  to  immediately 
add  a  sufficient  quantity  of  a  Solution  of  chloride  of  mag¬ 
nesia  to  form  a  mass  which  can  be  mape  into  brick. 

Another  plan  is  to  moisten  the  ore  with  silicate  of  soda 
,  to  mold  and  dry  the  same  end  to  soak  the  same  in  a  solution 
of  chloride  of  calcium,  which  causes  a  chemical  reaction  to 
take  place,  forming  chloride  of  soda  and  silicate  of  lime, 
the  latter  binding  the  whol  e  together.  A6  the  brick  will  be 
injured  by  water  it  oan  be  dipped  for  an  instant  in  petroleum 
containing  asphalt  which  renders  it  waterproof. 

large  masses  of  the  ore  may  be  placed  in  a  receptacle 
with  a  porous  bottom  made,  sa/,  of  cloth  or  coarse  ore,  ,  ti 
and  carbonic  aoid  water  saturated  with  carbonate  of  lime  spray 
ed  over  the  top,  an d  a  mechani cal  exhaustion  and  evaporation 
taking  place  beneath  the  receptacle* 

Another  method  is  to  mix  tho  ore  with  alumina  hydrate 
ant?  drying  the  film  of  alunina  looking  the  particles  to¬ 

Another  method  is  to  mix  tho  ore  with  carbonate  of  lime 
in  a  closed  retort,  and  mel  t  the  particles  of  carbonate  of 
lime  -  which  melts  under  pressure  -* 

Another  method  is  to  use  fluor  spar  and  mel  t  the  parti¬ 
cles  in  retorts  to  lock  th  e  part,  idea  together. 

Another  method  i  s  to  mix  the  strong  solution  of  chloride 
of  calcium  with  ore  sufficient  to  brick  it  and  the:  to  heat, 
the  bricks  to  fuse  the  dried  chloride,  than  to  present  action 
of  water  on  the  bricks  to  soak  them  in  petroleum  in  whi  oh 
asphalt  Kx  is  dissolved.  Chloride  of,  Carbonate  of 
Soda,  Mixture  of  Carbonate  of  Soda  and  Potash,  Nitrate  of 
Soda,  and  other  easily  fused  salts  can  be  used  for  locking 
,  and  the  brick  rendered  non  .hydrosoopic  by  dipping  in  asphalt 
tar,  rosin  pitch  or  other  material  insoluble  in  water 

Slaked  lime  may  be  mixed  with  ore  and  then  dried  and 
treated  with  strong  solution  of  chloride  of  calcium. 

I  prefer  to  make  the  brick  in  the  form  of  balls,  about 
one  to  two  inches  in  diameter,  as  int  this  form  they  have  the 
great  est  strength  for  the  minimum  cementing  material. 

Another  shape  is  cubes  one  to-  tivo  inches  square  with 

state  of  'low  Jersey  : 

:  ss: 

County  of  Essex.  : 

Thomas  A.  Edison,  the  above  naned  petitioner, 
a  citizen  of  the  United  States  and  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park 
in  the  Countyijtef  Essex  and  Stats  of  Hew  Jersey,  being  duly 
sworn,  deposes  and  says:  That  he  believes  himself  to  b  e 

the  original  and  first  inventor  of  the  improvements  in  manu¬ 
facturing  iron  set  forth  in  the  accompanying  specification.. 

Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before 
me  / C)  day  a  1891. 


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0  17. 

Tho  pot it ion  of  Thomas  A.  Edison,  a  citizen  of  the 
United  States,  re si dine  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of 
Essex  and  State  of  Mow  Jersey,  represents: 

T7iat  ho  has  made  certain  improvements  in  transmission 
of  power, •  and  that  he  is  now  engaged  in  making  experiments 
for  the  purpose  of  perfecting:  the  samo,  preparatory  to  ap¬ 
plying  for  Letters  Patent  therefor. 

lie  tharoforo  prays  that  tho  subjoined  description  of 
his  invention  may  bo  filed  as  a  caveat  in  the  confidential 
archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 

It  is  requested  that  all  communications  relating  to 
this  caveat  be  sent  to  Dyer  &  Seely,  36  Vlall  St.,  How  York 

TO  Tin?  OOIS.II  8SI0NER  03?  PATENTS: 

Ho  it  Known  that  I,  Thoms  A.  Edison,  a  citiaon  of  the 
Unitad  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  Essox  County,  New 
Jersey,  have  invent od  certain  improvements  in  transmission  of 
power, and  desiring  further  timo  to  mature  tho  same,  file  this 
my  cavoat  therefor,  and  pray  protection  of  my  rights  until  I 
shall  have  matured  my  invention. 

Tho  following  is  a  description  of  my  invention  as 
full  and  exact  as  I  am  at  this  timo  able  to  give,  reference 
being  had  to  the  drawings  herewith. 

Figure  1  shows  a  percussion  mining  drill  worked  nftor 
tho  manner  of  a  stamp  drill  with  a  cam  lifting  tho  percussion 
drill  rod  and  allowing  it  to  drop  under  tho  action  of  a  spring 
The  action  of  the  cam  on  the  collar  is  to  twist  trie  rod  just 
as  in  a  stamp  drill.  An  olcctro  motor  running  at  high  3pood 
to  givo  efficiency  and  lesson  weight  is  belted  to  a  largo 
wheel  on  tho  cam  shaft;  tho  bolt  is  provided  with  oyalots  to 
obtain  traction,  adhesion  and  positive  motion.  Tho  can  wheel 
makes,  say,  350  revolutions  per  minuto,  while  tho  motor  makes 
1GOO .  Tho  motor  and  all  tho  devices  arc  mounted  on  a  slide 
in  the  tripod  frame  and  the  whole  is  fod  forward  as  tho  drill 
cuts  its  way  in  tho  rock. 

Figure  2  shows  a  method  of  delivering  ore  at  sevoral 
points  from  ono  continuous  convoying  bolt.  The  ore  is  fed  on 
thc  belt  at  K  and  goes  to  d  and  drops  in  tho  box^which  strad- 
dlos  tho  belt  with  a  spout  at  each  side .  The  oro  drops  down 
to  h  and  will  continue  to  do  30  until  tho  cone  formed  at  h 
reaches  tho  bottom  of  a,  when  the  spout  a  fills  up,  and  then 

it  overflows  on  the  bolt  forward  and  coos  to  a  and  so  on.  If 
h  is  drawn  upon,  the  cone  lowers  and  the  amount  tal:on  away  is 
immediately  ouppliod. 

Figures  5,  A  show  a  piok-up  for  heavy  current s  from  a 
rail.  The  two  wheels  runnlnc  between  the  main  car  whools  aro 
hold  against  tho  rail  by  springs *and  they  can  have  considera¬ 
ble  motion  and  groat  pressure .  Those  two  wheels  are  made  as 
in  figure  A ;  the  object  of  the  hardened  edge  £  is  to  cut 
through  ico  or  mud.  Two  contact  springs  S  on  each  wheel 
servo  to  take  up  tho  current  after  it  passes  into  the  wheel 
from  the  rail  and  carry  it  to  the  motor*  There  is  to  be  an- 

/l  u/duA. 

other  pair* on  tho  other  rail,  tho  axloa  of  tho  cars  being  in¬ 
sulated  and  tho  two  traffic  rails  being  used  for  P  and  II 
currents . 

Figure  5  shows  the  odgo  of  tho  collecting  wheel  cut 
into  points  to  more  easily  pass  through  ico. 

Figuro  0  shows  cutting  edges  of  hardened  stool  mount od 
on  steel  springs  secured  to  tho  periphery  of  a  wheel,  the 
weight  of  wheel  and  strongth  of  spring  being  such  as  will 
cause  the  ltnivos  to  cut  through  ice  etc.  An  extra  motion  in 
tho  same  direction  as  is  givon  by  the  motion  of  the  car  would 
tend  to  help. 

Figuro  V  shows  a  singlo  spring  with  cutting  knife . 

Figure  S  shows  several  thin  hardened  steel  cutting 
plates  permitting  heavy  pressure  so  as  to  cut  through  ice, 
mud,  etc. 

Figure  0  shoves  a  brush  whoel  with  hardonod  like 
card  clothing. 

Figures  10  and  11  show  a  motor  adapted  to  oloctric 

|  railroads .  Tho  motor  consists  of  a  rotating  inner  armature 
in  the  fora  of  a  ring,  while  the  field,  nnliko  thooo  usually 
in  use,  is  also  a  ring  and  is  wound  and  connoctod  to  a  commu¬ 
tator  just  as  if  it  was  an  oi'dinary  ring  armature .  I  pro  for 
to  uso  Pacinotti  tooth  both  on  tho  arraaturo  and  field  rings. 
Ono  commutator,  which  belongs  to  tho  inner  ring  or  armature 
proper,  is  connoctod  to  the  abaft  and  rotates  with  it,  while 
tho  other  commutator  is  fixed  and  does  not  rotate  with  the  ar¬ 
mature.  ThiG  fixod  commutator  is  connoctod  to  tho  field  coil, 
which,  in  this  case,  might  be  called  tho  outer  armature ;  this 
coil  is  also  fixed  and  dooo  not  rotate.  Each  commutator  is 
provided  with  revolving  brushos^working  against  tho  sido  of 
the  commutator,  and  not  on  top  as  usual.  This  destroys  the 
effect  of  centrifugal  action.  Pour  rings  with  springs  con¬ 
nect  tho  lino  to  tho  brushes.  Ilia  outor  and  inner  amaturos 
arc  connected  in  series  aoross  tho  lino.  An  auxiliary  small 
motor  with  sufficient  power  to  rot at o  tho  brushes  is  used,  and 
the  rotation  is  givon  by  moans  of  a  link  bolt  and  sprocket  or 
bevel  gearing.  This  motor  is  put  across  the  lino  and  its 
spood  can  be  raisod  or  lowered  or  stopped  altogether  by  moans 
of  a  resistance  box.  The  rotating  armature  serves  to  give 
motion  to  the  car  by  moans  of  gearing,  rope,  driving  or  othor 
mechanical  connections.  A  switch  x  opons  tho  main  circuit. 

If  now  tho  small  motor  is  started,  tho  spood  is  raised  until 
the  counter  eloctro-motivo  force  duo  to  tho  mutual  action  of 
the  armature  and  commutated  fiold  is  such  that  there  is  scarce¬ 
ly  any  current  passing  through  tho  armature  when  the  switch  x 
is  closed,  honco  thoro  is  no  torque  and  the  armaturo  remains 
stationary.  If  now  by  means  of  tho  resistance  box  the  speed 

I  collectors  arc  rovorsable . 

Pi.CT.iro  14  shows  two  stool  disks  working  on  the  sido 
tho  rail;  they  may  bo  slotted  toward  thoir  centers. 

PiEuro  ir>  chows  a  numb  or  of  small  wheels  with  axles 
arranpod  within  a^whoel,  tho  peripheries  projecting  through 
tho  rim  of  this  whool;  a  heavy  inner  whool  servos  to  fjivo 
prooauro  on  that^  in  contact  with  the  rail* 

0  A  T  II. 

State  of  New  Jersey 
County  of  Essex 

THOMAS  A.  3DI50H,  tho  above  named  petitioner, 
a  citizen  of  tho  United  Statos  and  resident  of  Llewellyn  Park, 
in  tho  Comity  of  Essex  and  State  of  hew  Jersey,  being  duly 
sworn,  deposes  and  says:  that  ho  believes  himself  to  bo  the 
original  and  first  inventor  of  the  improvements  in  transmission 
of'  power*'  set  forth  in  the  accompanying  specification. 

Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  mo 
this  p-^^day  of  1Q9/. 

iZLd'-Zt-.  c_ 





new  Yor k, -  J-Un e.._24»_l.aa.6..._ 

Thomas  A.  Edison,  Esq., 

Edison's  Laboratory, 

Orange,  N.  J. 

Bear  Sir:- 

We  enclose  Patent  Office  certificate  of  the  filing  of  the 
caveat,  the  2oth  day  of  June,  on  your  Improvement  in  Fluorescent  Lamps, 
and.  Method  of  Operating  same. 

Kindly  acknowledge  receipt. 


Yours  truly, 

The  petition  of  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  u  citizen  of  the 
United  States,  residing  at  Llewellyn  Park,  in  the  County  of 
Essex  and  Stnto  of  Havr  Jersey,  represents: 

That  he  has  made  cortain  improvements  in  Fluorescent 
Lamps  arid  the  Method  of  Operating  Some,  and  that  ho  is  now  en¬ 
gaged  in  making  experiments  for  the  purpose  of  perfecting  the 
same,  preparatory  to  applying  for  Letters  Patent  therefor. 

Ho  therefore  prays  that  the  subjoined  description  of 

Ihis  invention  nay  ho  filed  at:  a  caveat  in  the  confidential 
archives  of  the  Patent  Office. 

It  is  requested  that  all  communications  relating  to 


Be  it.  known  that  I,  THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  n  citizen  of  the 
nlted  States ,  raaidln &  at  T.lewellyn  Park,  Essex  County,  Mew 
Jersey,  have  invented  certain  improvements  in  Fluorescent  Lamps 
und  the  Method  of  Opera tine  Some,  and  desiring  further  time  to 
nature  the  same,  file  this  my  caveat  therefor,  and  pray  protec¬ 
tion  of  my  rights  until  I  shall  have  matured  my  invention. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  my  invention  as  fun 
uid  exact  as  I  ani  at  this  time  able  to  give,  reference  being 
lad  to  the  drawings  herewith. 

Figure  1  shows  a  fluorescent  lamp  consisting  of  a  glass 
mlb,  a  central  electrode  of  aluminum  Or  other  metal,  which 
Jlectrode  is  in  the  form  of  a  polished  ball  so  as  to  throw  the 
in  ®very  direction.  The  bulb  has  crystals  of  the  fluor- 
sscing  substance  fused  to  the  inside:  a  flat  olectrode  X  is 
>ealed  in  the  glass;  s  is  art  exterior  electrode  of  tin-foil 
shellacked  to  the  glass  and  connected  to  the  terminal  cl. 

3  is  a  metallic  shade  which  serves  as  a  reflector  and  also 
;o  make  contact  with  the  air  when  but  one  electrode  or  pole  of 
■he  inductive  current  apparatus  Is  used.  There  are  a  number 
if  chemical  substances  which  convert  the  X  ray  of  Roentgen  into 
:  ight;  the  best  so  far  discovered  by  me  arc  the  Tungstates  and 
Molybdates,  such  as 

Tungstate  of  Calcium,  Strontium,  Copper,  Beryllium,  Alumi- 

}um,  Manganese,  Zino,  and  Cadmium,  and  Molybdate  of  Calcium, 
trontium  and  Beryllium. 

The  crystals  are  made  by  the  fusion  process  and  are  of 
ourse  anhydrous  and  having  been  produced  at  a  heat  higher  than 
ed  are  stable  and  do  not  change  even  when  subjected  for  a  long 
ime  to  molecular  or  atomic  bombardment  in  the  vacuum  chamber. 

In  making  these  crystals,  the  following  is  the  usual  process, 
for  Instance  with  Tungstates.  The  Tungstate  of  Soda  and  the 
Chloride  of  the  metal,  for  instance  Chloride  of  Calcium,  in 
molecular  proportions,  are  placed  in  a  crucible  along  with  two 
or  three  times  their  weight  of  common  salt  and  the  whole  brought 
to  a  white  heat  and  then  allowed  to  cool  very  slowly.  v/hen 
cold  tho  crucible  is  broken  and  the  crystals  are  dissolved  out 
by  water.  They  aro  then  screened  to  different  sizes.  In 
fusing  the  crystals  to  tho  glass  a  sufficient  quantity  of  the 
larger  size  is  placed  in  the  globe  and  the  same  Is  rotated  in  a 
flame  until  the  glass  is  red  hot,  when  the  crystals  readily 
fuse  to  the  glass.  After  all  the  crystals  that  can  be  fused 
to  the  glass  have  been  so  fused,  a  supply  of  smaller  crystals, 
rilling  the  interstices  of  the  larger  ones,  is  placed  in  the 
llobe  while  still  hot  and  those  fused  to  tho  glass.  Finally 
;hese  are  ejected  and  a  supply  of  very  fine  crystals  is  put  in 
'he  ®lobe  t"lfl  these  passing  through  the  interstices  of  the 
Jther  two  finally  cover  almost  entirely  the  whole  surface  of 
;he  glass. 

I  have  found  that  while  nearly  all  the  different  chemical 
crystals  fluoresce  with  a  white  light  when  subjected  to  the  X 
■ay,  there  are  some  which  have  a  higher  or  lower  refrangibility 
.0  light  than  others;  also  that  while  some  chemical  crystals 
’luoresce  tc  the  X  ray  and  scarcely  fluorosce  to  the  electrical 
raves,  there  are  others  that  fluoresce  both  to  the  X  ray  and 
lectric  waves,  and  therefore  while  a  substance  such  as  Tung- 
tato  of  Calcium  gives  powerful  fluorescence  to  the  X  ray  out- 
i  ide  of  the  vacuum,  there  are  other  chemicals  which  although 
lot  fluorescing  so  brightly  outside  of  the  lamp  to  the  X  ray, 
mch  as  Tungstate  of  Strontium,  yet  inside  give  slightly  more 
:  ight  as  they  fluoresce  both  to  the  X  ray  and  the  electric 
v  aves . 


II  am  now  manufacturing  the  Tungstates,  Molybdates  and 
Uranntes,  Vanadates  and  Titanates,  of  the  rare  metals,  such  as 
Erbium,  Yttrium,  Samarium,  Scandum,  Germanium,  Rubidium,  Zir¬ 
conium,  Caesium,  Lanthanum,  Cerium,  Ytterbium,  Tantalum,  Tho¬ 
rium,  and.  compounds  or  mixtures  of  the  same  as  found  in  Sarnars- 
kite,  Gadolinlte,  Furgersoni te ,  Alnnite,  etc.  Also  I  cm  hav¬ 
ing  made  by  the  fusion  prooess  those  Cyanides  and  double  Cya¬ 
nides  of  the  heavy  metals  which  will  withstand  a  red  heat  with¬ 
out  decomposition.  Also  Tungstates,  Molybdates  and  Uranntes 
of  the  organic  bases.  Also  the  salts  of  Silioo  Tungstates 
and  double  Tungstates,  Molybdates  and  Uranates. 

I  am  also  trying  to  make  a  glass  in  which  Tungstic 
acid  shall  take  the  place  of  Silica.  The  glass  being  com¬ 
posed  of  Tungstic  acid,  lime  and  soda,  instead  of  Silicic  acid, 
lime  and  soda,  the  chamber  can  be  blown  from  such  n  glass  ren¬ 
dering  the  use  of  crystals  unnecessary. 

In  fluorescent  lamps  where  only  exterior  electrodes  are 
used,  the  residual  gas  in  the  vacuum  car.  be  bromine,  chlorine 
or  iodine.  The  molecular  impact  will  then  be  more  powerful. 

I  am  also  making  some  metallic  Beryllium  and  chemically 
pure  iron  for  electrodes  within  the  vacuum  ohtunber.  Natural 
sheets  of  Ceylon  graphite  are  useful  for  electrodes. 

Figure  2  shows  a  number  of  fluorescent  lamps  in  multi¬ 
ple  are  but  connected  with  one  pole  only  of  the  induction  coil. 
The  air  of  the  room  forming  the  other  circuit,  C  being  an  air 
electrode  preferably  of  Bine  and  B  B  B  etc.  acting  as  reflect¬ 
ors  and  also  as  air  electrodes.  When  the  air  gap  Is  thus 
used,  the  lamps  scarcely  show  any  heat  and  there  is  no  danger 
of  the  electrodes  becoming  heated  and  thus  lowering  the  vacuum. 

Figure  3  shows  a  lamp  with  external  electrodes  only, 
a  and  o  are  external  electrodes  of  metallic  foil.  The  glass 
not  covered  is  ooatod  inside  with  the  fluorescing  crystals. 

B  is  the  refleotor  and  air  contact  eleotrode,  connected  to 
earth  or  partial  earth,  or  not.  She  electrode  o  is  connected 

to  the  eisergl?,ing  apparatus. 

Figure  4  shows  a  storage  battery  composed  of  several 
thousand  small  cells.  G  is  a  T.eyden  jar  or  condenser,  F  a 
spark  gap  in  a  partial  vaouiim,  the  action  of  v/hioh  is  to  make 
the  current  oscillatory .  The  primary  of  the  coil  h  is  of 
yery  high  resistance  compared  to  those  usually  used.  The 
srhole  coll  is  immersed  in  oil  to  prevent  sparking.  The  oon- 
ienaer  G  may  be  placed  aoross  the  line- or  be  omitted  altogeth- 
ir . 

Figure  5  shows  the  secondary  of  one  coil  energizing  the 
srlmary  of  another  coil  through  a  T.eyden  jar  0  and  spark  gap  X, 
bhe  seoond  coil  being  immersed  in  oil,—  the  primary  of  the 
first  ooil  being  oscillated  by  an  alternating  current  dynamo  or 
>y  a  straight  current  worked  by  a  bra  ale  wheel  or  in  the  same 
mnner  as  shown  in  figure  4. 

Figure  6  shows  a  coil  the  primary  of  which  is  worked 
'rora  an  alternating  current  transformer.  A  spark  gap  X  and 
iondenser  or  jar  5  are  placed  in  the  cirouit  or  across  the 
ilrcuit  as  at  0*. 

Figure  8  shows  a  long  tube  lamp  which  by  the  use  of 
he  electrodes  as  shown  can  bo  of  any  length.  Two  parallel 
vires  are  used  as  electrodes  a  b.  These  are  kept  separate  by 
he  glass  supports  e  o« .  The  exterior  at  each  end  is  covered 
vlth  foil  and  connects  to  the  wires  passing  through  the  glass. 

3 luoresolng  crystals  are  fused  inside  along  the  whole  length 
c  f  the  tube . 

Figure  8  l/a  shows  a  single  wire  passing  from  end  to 
«nd;  the  other  electrode  is  an  external  one,  jj.  This  is 


connected  to  the  onergizing  apparatus  while  o  Is  connected 

r  With  thG  °lr  0leotrode  C  or  to  the  other  pole  of  the  energizing 

Figure  9  is  r  similar  lamp,  a  single  internal  electrode 
being  used  while  an  external  foil  electrode  and.  air  electrode 
are  used  outside. 

I  Figure  10  shows  the  energizing  of  the  lamp  without  any 

riductive  apparatus. 

A  is  the  battery,  either  a  primary  battery  or  a  storage 
attery, preferably  the  latter.  It  is  armnged  in  many  sa¬ 
les  and  provided  with  switches  whereby  the  whole  can  bo  thrown 
n  multiple  arc  and  charged  across  an  ordinary  Incandescent 
ight  circuit  and  then  the  whole  of  the  sections  thrown  in  se- 
ios.  Several  thousand  cells  are  used;  the  fluorescent 
imps  are  in  mill  tipla  . 

-  is  an  air  gap  shunted  or  not  by  a  condenser.  The 
sac  illations  may  be  increased  by  the  use  of  a  vacuum  gap  C  in- 
iarted  in  the  circuit,  or  both  can  be  disconnected  and  only 
ilmple  condensers  used, 

Figure  11  shows  the  bombardment  in  vaouo  of  the  resid¬ 
ue!  molecules  or  atoms,  this  action  being  brought  about  by  mag¬ 
netic  repulsion  of  the  atoms  when  diamagnetic,  or  attraction 
fa  in  the  case  of  oxygen  when  paramagnetic. 

To  produce  the  bombardment  with  equal  strength  and  vel- 
foity  as  those  brought  about  by  the  electric  current,  it  is 
essential  that  the  magnetic  poles  should  oscillate  equally  as 
:*-pid  as  the  current.  A  is  the  vacuum  tube  with  fluorescent 
c  -ye tale  inside,  B  is  the  magnet  core  composed  of  very  fine 
i'on  wires,  and  energized  by  a  helix  of  wire.  The  current  in 
J  is  an  alternating  or  oscillating  one.  The  oscillations 
t  -om  the  secondary  H  are  sharpened  and  made  very  rapid  by  the 


condenser  0  and.  spark  gap  These  oscillations  may  be  made 

i  to  pas?  directly  to  _c  but  it  is  better  to  interpose  another  in¬ 
duction  coil  d  jj  between.  The  lines  of  force  of  the  magnet 
oscillate  with  immense  rapidity  and  the  residual  atoms  in  the 
chamber  bombard  the  tube  and  crystals,  thus  giving  light  by 
magnetic  instead  of  electric  action. 

Figure  li?  shows  a  fluorescent  lamp  with  an  exterior 
electrode, a  foil  d being  placed  in  the  concave  part  of  the  bulb. 
The  bombardment  is  such  that  all  parts  of  the  interior  receive 
an  equal  portion.  c  is  the  internal  eleotrode. 

Figure  13  shows  a  room  the  walls  of  which  are  plastered 
with  fluorescing  crystals.  The  lamp  is  suspended  from  the 
ceiling.  The  X  rays  procooding  out  into  space  everywhere 
strike  tho  walls  and  are  turned  into  light. 

Figure  14  showa  a  bi)lb  with  an  internal  removable  glass 
or  mica  cylinder,  the  inner  surface  of  which  is  coated  with 
fluorescing  crystals.  The  electrodes  pass  into  the  outer 
chamber  and  project  into  the  ends  of  the  fluorescing  removable 
cylinder  a  short  distance.  Should  the  vacuum  chamber  be  per¬ 
forated  or  the  lamp  in  time  become  dark  from  the  deposit  torn 
off  from  the  electrodes,  tho  outer  chamber  can  be  broken,  the 
tube  removed  and  cleaned  arid  used  again. 

Figure  15  shows  a  break  wheel  A,  battery  B,  inductive 
nagnot  0  and  Induction  coil  d.  Wiien  the  circuit  is  closed  at 
\  tho  coll  0  is  energised.  When  open  a  powerful  discharge 
rave  passes  through  the  condenser  js  to  primary  of  d,  causing  a 
strong  sharp  wave  to  be  thrown  into  the  secondary  of  d  and  en- 
irgising  the  fluorescent  lamp. 

Figure  16  shows  Leyden  Jars  or  condensers  arranged  in 
series  with  fluorescent  lampe  shunted  aroundj  them  and  a  spark 

Sap  X  to  give  an  oscillatory  character  to  tho  wave. 

Pleura  17  shows  the  same  thing  arranged  In  multiple 

figure  18  shows  a  fluorescent  lamp  with  a  nearly  flat 
lottom  whereupon  fluorescing  crystals  are  placed.  a,  b,  are 
■he  electrodes.  The  object  here  is  to  give  a  large  surface 
rhen  fluorescing  materials  are  used  v.hieh  cannot  be  fused  to 
'he  glass. 

Figure  19  is  a  fluorescing  lamp  with  several  electrodes 
■  rhsreby  the  main  current  can  be  thrown  from  one  to  the  other 
1  y  a  comutating  device  and  thus  obtain  a  more  general  distri¬ 
bution  over  large  bulbs. 

figure  20  shows  a  commutating  method  whereby  a  number 
(f  fluorescent  lamps  are  connected  and  disconnected  to  the 
Inductive  apparatus  one  after  another.  Owing  to  the  gradual 
tying  away  of  the  fluorescence  of  the  crystals  as  low  as  10 
ton  tacts  per  second  can  bo  made  for  each  lamp  without  any  flicJn- 
{ ring  perceptible  to  the  eyo,  especially  when  the  crystals  with¬ 
in  the  globe  are  large.  Fluoride  of  Calcium  has  the  prop- 

<  rty  of  retaining  phosphorescence  for  a  long  while  after  sub¬ 
notion  to  the  X  ray.  The  crystals  can  be  crushed  and  sieved 
o  size  and  if  used  alone  and  fused  to  the  glass  even  a  lower 
late  than  10  contaots  per  second  can  be  used,  or  a  portion  can 
te  mixed  with  the  more  powerfully  fluorescing  materials  and 
iused  to  the  glass,  thus  delaying  more  or  less  the  drying  out 
cf  the  fluorescence.  While  it  is  preferable  to  fuse  the  ory- 
t  tals  to  the  glass,  it  is  not  absolutely  necessary  to  do  so, 
i  lthough  it  is  more  difficult  to  obtain  a  vacuum  when  cements 
ere  us6d.  The  crystals  may  be  secured  by  a  soluble  salt, 
like  Silicate  of  Calcium  which  when  dry  crystallizes  anhydroua 


and  the  crystals  being  silky  and  transparent  hold  the  larger 
fluorescing  crystals  to  the  glass.  The  globe  being  heated 
while  exhausting  on  the  piusp,  air  end  ir.oiEtura  are  driven  out. 
Almost  any  salt  dissolved  in  water  which  on  evaporation  leaves 
a  transparent  film  easily  dehydrated  by  heat  without  losing  its 
transparency  can  be  used.  The  crystals  can  thus  bo  secured 
to  mica  and  placed  in  the  vacuum  chamber. 

Figure  21  shows  an  automatic  break  In  vacuo.  B  is  the 
vacuum  tube;  d  is  a  springy  wire  which  supports  a  cylinder  of 
sheet  iron;  a  a'  are  helices  of  v/iro .  On  the  end  of  0  are 
points  for  making  contacts.  At  each  end  are  spring  contacts. 

G  is  the  battery.  When  in  action  there  is  an  automatic  vi¬ 
bration  of  0.  The.  vacuum  being  very  high  there  Is  no  spark- 

Figure  22  shows  a  similar  device.  a  u*  are  disks  of 
iron.  X  X  are  magnets. 

Figure  23  shows  a  break  in  vacuo,  the  vibration  of  the 
break  being  we  do  by  the  inertia  of  the  break  spring  in  vacuo. 

The  tuba  is  vibrated  mechanically  by  a  lever  worked  by  a 
crank  X. 

An  induction  coil  for  the  uso  herein  described  the 
primary  of  which  is  energized  with  the  discharge  of  a  Leyden 
jar  or  other  condenser, should  have  a  core  of  a  great  number  of 
steel  wires  glass  hard  at  the  ends  and  highly  magnetized, 
instead  of  using  the  usual  soft  iron  wires.  In  this  case 
there  is  an  actual  alternation  or  reversal  of  the  magnetic 
lines  providing  the  impressed  magnetism  does  not  exceed  the 
permanent  magnetism  and  a  very  great  increase  in  the  production 
of  the  X  ray  form  of  energy  is  had,  even  with  the  usual  coil 
energized  in  the  ordinary  manner  and  muoh  weaker  current  can  be 
used  on  the  primary  and  sharper  waves  generated.  The  old 
way  necessitates  running  the  core  nearly  to  saturation  and  then 

disturbing  the  magnetism  because  at  this  point  the  magnetiza¬ 
tion  and  demagnetization  is  rapid,  but  with  the  permanently 
magnetized  core  this  is  not  necessary,  hence  a  very  weak  cur¬ 
rant  will  suffice. 

Highly  polished  glass  hardened  crucible  steel  elec¬ 
trodes  can  be  used  in  my  fluorescent  lamp,  and  if  exceedingly 
hard  and  having  a  mirrorlike  polish  they  do  not  blacken  the  glas^ 
or  orystals. 

Heretofore  orystals  have  been  placed  in  vacuo  and  made 
to  fluoresce,  but  such  fluorescence  has  always  been  due  to 
else  trie  waves.  As  far  as  known  to  me  no  substance  capable  of 

fluorescing  to  the  X  ray  has  ever  bean  placed  in  vacuo  and  made 

to  fluoraaoo;  at  least  none  that  gave  any  appreciable  effect 
as  compared  to  those  substances  which  strongly  fluoresce  to  the 
X  ray  after  the  ray  has  passed  outside  the  vacuum.  With  the 
more  powerful  X  ray  fluorescing  substanoes,a  point  is  attained 
whereby  the  degree  of  fluorescence  and  consequently  light  is 
sufficient  to  enable  it  to  be  used  commercially  for  lighting. 
Heretofore  all  the  substances  used  being  only  fluorescent  to 
the  slactrio  wave  and  not  to  the  X  wave  were  far  too  weak  to 
lead  any  experlatenter  to  endeavor  to  utilize  that  kind  of  flu¬ 
orescence  for  commercial  limiting  —  but  with  the  far  more 

powerful  effect  of  X  ray  fluorescere  the  results  at  once  are 
remarkable  and  powerful. 


I  propose  to  claim: — 

1.  A  fluorescent  lamp  giving  light  by  the  fluorea- 

Ieenca  of  chemloals  which  fluoresce  when  subjected  to  the  X  ray 
3f  Roentgen. 

2.  A  fluoresoent  lamp  with  chemical  substances  placed 

therein,  whioh  chemical  substances  are  fluorescent  to  the 
K  ray  before  being  placed  therein.  ' 

3.  A  fluorescent  lanp  exhausted  of  air  to  the  X  ray 
point,  crystals  which  fluoresce  when  subjected  to  the  X  ray 
outside  the  vacuum  being  placed  within  the  chamber. 

3 is  ting  of  an  exhausted  chamber  of  glass  on  the  inside  of  whic: 
ire  placed  substances  which  when  subjected  to  the  X  ray  give 
iff  light  such  as  the  Tungstates  and  Molybdates  of  the  metals. 

3.  The  fusing  of  the  fluorescing  crystals  to  the  ii 
iide  of. the  vacuum  chamber  or  to  the  surface  of  a  removable 
1  ylindsr  placed  within  the  vacuum  chamber. 

•  Working  fluoresoent  lamps  in  multiple  arc  with  ai 
'  formlhG  one  part  of  the  circuit  and  air  electrodes 

ascent  lamp  which  will  ale< 

:  of  a  metallic  reflector  above  the  fiuor- 

s  an  air  electrode. 

9.  A.  fluorescent  lamp  with  the  interior  coated  with 
jrystals  of  chemical  substances  fluoresoing  to  the  X  ray  in 
jOmbi notion  with  exterior  electrodes  only  and  an  air  electrode 


10.  The  method  of  energizing  a  fluorescent  lamp  as 

in  figure  4  —  by  a  continuous  currents  thrown  into  OBcillations 
by  a  spark  gap  in  air  or  preferably  in  vacuo;--  also  in  con¬ 
nection  with  b  condenser. 

11.  The  methods  shown  in  figures  5,  6,  7,  10,  15, 

21,  22  and  23,  for  energizing  the  fluorescent  lamp. 

12.  The  tubular  fluorescent  lamp  with  parallel  elec¬ 
trodes  supported  as  shown  and  with  exterior  electrodes  as 
ahown  In  figure  8. 

13.  The  tubular  fluorescent  lamp  as  shown  in  figure 

0  1/3. 

14.  Tho  method  of  producing  molecular  bombardment  of 
the  residual  atoms  within  a  vacuum  chamber  and  causing  such 
bombardment  to  take  place  on  crystals  v/hich  give  light  when 
subjected  to  such  stress  consisting  of  rapidly  oscillating 
ratline  tic  lines  of  force  through  the  chamber  substantially  a3 
shown  in  figure  11  for  giving  light. 

15.  The  method  of  lighting  a  room  as  shown  in  figure 

16.  The  method  of  working  fluorescent  lamps  in  mul¬ 
tiple  and  series  as  shown  in  figures  16  and  17. 

17.  The  lamp  shown  in  figure  16. 

18.  A  fluorescent  lamp  with  multiple  electrodes  op¬ 
erated  substantially  as  described  in  connection  with  figure  19. 

19.  The  method  shown  and  described  in  connection  with 
figure  20  of  operating  fluorescent  lamps. 

20.  The  use  of  granule tod  fluoride  of  calcium  alone 


or  In  connection  with  other  crystals  with  a  vacuum  chamber  for 
giving  light  t>y  the  fluorescence  caused  by  the  X  ray,  the  elec¬ 
tric  waves  and  the  heat  of  bombardment ,  all  of  which  the  fluor¬ 
ide  is  sensitive  to, 

81.  1’he  use  of  the  crystalline  form  of  the  Tung¬ 
states  or  IfcOybdates  of  the  metals  for  fluorescing. 


this  /o  T  day  of  Jure, 

1896 . 

Witnesses : 



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